Optimizing wheat production

Optimizing wheat production

Updating row spacing, seeding and rotation recommendations.

Zeroing in on the right N rate

Zeroing in on the right N rate

This AAFC-developed precision ag tool helps get nitrogen just right.

Till or no-till after soybeans?

Till or no-till after soybeans?

Is the practice of tilling to manage residue after soybeans supported?

Figuring out nitrogen for corny yields

Figuring out nitrogen for corny yields

Updating nitrogen management for higher corn yields.

Another dimension of canola-pulse rotational combos

Another dimension of canola-pulse rotational combos

Does growing canola before a pulse crop affect nitrogen fixation?

The Government of Saskatchewan released a map outlining the rural municipalities (RMs) where clubroot has been identified to date.
Below the soil surface lurks the weed seed bank - the predominant source of weed pressure on current and future crops. Harry Brook, crop specialist at the Alberta Ag-Info Centre explains how the weed seed bank works and how to reduce its potency.
Seed options have expanded for Canadian and U.S. canola producers following China’s approval of canola traits developed using biotechnology.
Harvested canola samples in 2018 contained variable levels of green seed. Neil Blue, provincial crop market analyst with Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, looks at what producers should consider when marketing their crop.
Best management practices suggest that seed placed fertilizer, residue management and cover crops will help prevent soil phosphorus from reaching water courses. Manure application requires extra attention to prevent phosphorus losses, especially during winter and snow melt conditions.
Alberta Agriculture releases the 2019 Wheat Midge Forecast Map, Pea Leaf Weevil Survey and the 2019 Wheat Stem Sawfly Forecast Map, allowing producers to make informed decisions on which pest threats to watch and seed treatments to use. 
The 2018 Canola Performance Trials small plot and field scale data booklet is now available online, providing growers with performance and comparative data on existing and new canola varieties. 
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) staff published their corn seasonal summary for 2018, covering planting, pollination and grain fill, as well as harvest. 
Protecting watersources from manure would be a lot easier if the weather would cooperate. After a relatively good growing season, the conditions since September have been wetter than normal with only short windows between rain events to complete harvest and field work. A challenging corn harvest, combined with wet soils and early snow events has resulted in fieldwork that is behind schedule and manure storages that are full and need to be emptied before the calendar gets to “winter”.
The saying “rain makes grain” was certainly true for soybeans in 2018. Above average rainfall in late July and August resulted in the highest provincial yields on record.
Snow plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy soils throughout the winter months.
From drought-like conditions in Manitoba to DON challenges in Ontario corn, Top Crop Manager tackled the highlights of the season in its Corn Season in Review webinar. Ben Rosser, corn specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and Morgan Cott, field agronomist with the Manitoba Corn Growers Association provided summaries of the corn season and answered producers' questions. 
Health Canada’s 2017 re-evaluation decision for glyphosate, stating that glyphosate is safe when used according to product label directions, stands after eight objections were reviewed and vetted.
Experts predict a worldwide fertilizer shortage in North America and farmers are recommended to purchase their input now rather than wait until peak season where supply could be low and prices could be high. | READ MORE
A new publication out of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s (AAFC) Harrow Research Station shows that use of solid manure reduces particulate and total phosphorus (P) loss on tile-drained soil over time, compared to liquid manure and chemical fertilizer.
I have had an evolution of views on herbicide resistance as it pertains to spraying. I’ve always believed that if you want to combat resistance with application technology, you need to spray less. After all, herbicide resistance is a direct consequence of relying too much on herbicide sprays.
Resistance is an evolutionary process by which weeds evolve to become resistant to whatever tools we are using to control them. It’s my contention that resistance cannot truly be eliminated. We can’t stop resistance but we can manage it. We can extend the life of these weed control tools as long as possible, and in some cases a very long time if we do the right things.
Canola growers gain a new tool to help control cleavers as the CODEX Alimentarius Commission (CAC) formally adopts a Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for the active ingredient quinclorac in canola. Growers can now use quinclorac products in their canola to control cleavers. 
If you have weeds in your field after harvest, think about a fall burndown,” says James Ferrier, Nufarm’s technical services manager for Eastern Canada. A fall burndown can be an effective tool to manage many tough perennial and winter annual weed problems and provide a cleaner seedbed for your next crop.
Health Canada has announced its plan to phase out most uses of the neonicotinoids clothianidin and thiamethoxam, citing that the two insecticides are being measured at levels harmful to aquatic insects.
Update: On Sept. 3, 2018, the Brazil federal court overturns its ban on glyphosate citing that the decision should factor in the implications of a glyphosate ban on Brazil's economy. (Reuters)
Fortenza insecticide is now registered as a soybean seed treatment for control of below-ground pests such as European chafer, June beetle, wireworm and seed corn maggot, according to a release by Syngenta Canada. 
Presented by Franck Dayan, professor, department of bioagricultural sciences and pest management, Colorado State University, at the Herbicide Resistance Summit, Saskatoon, Feb 27-28, 2018.Group 14 herbicides are part of a group of chemistries that require light to be effective as an herbicide. In Canada, one of these compounds is called Heat (saflufenacil), and is a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO-inhibiting) herbicide. There are other light-dependent herbicides, as well. Photosystem II (PS II) is a chemistry that interferes with photosynthesis and disrupts plant growth. An example would be AAtrex (atrazine) (Group 5). There’s also inhibitors of PS I, another part of photosynthesis, including compounds like Gramoxone (paraquat) (Group 22). These two chemistries are related and affect the transfer of electrons within photosynthesis. Plants also need chlorophyll and carotenoids for photosynthesis to occur, and there are compounds that are inhibitors of PDS like Solicam (norfluzaron) (Group 12). Another compound inhibits one of the precursors to the carotenoid pathway such as Command (clomazone) (Group 13). Some of the new chemistries, the HPPD inhibitors like Callisto (mesotrione) (Group 27), are also part of this class of chemistries. All of these are called light-dependent herbicides because they affect one aspect or another of photosynthesis, either through the transfer of electrons or the synthesis of the pigments, and require light to be active. I’ll be talking about PPO inhibitors, an enzyme that is involved in porphyrin and chlorophyll synthesis. Why do we care about these compounds? When they work they work really, really well. PPO-inhibiting herbicides were first commercialized in the 1960s and their market share in the U.S. reached about 10 per cent in the late 1990s. A lot of herbicides have been synthesized that target this enzyme or pathway. About 100,000 compounds may have been synthesized that can inhibit this enzyme. Of course not all of them make it to be an herbicide. These PPO-inhibiting herbicides were initially used mostly as post-emergent, broad-spectrum weed control in soybean fields. That’s how they were primarily used for the longest time. Some like carfentrazone (Aim in Canada) were developed for cereal crops. Some were so active that they were used as non-selective herbicides. Mode of actionWhen the herbicide is applied, it lands on the leaf surface and then goes through the top layer, called the cuticle. It goes through the epidermis, and then has to get to the target site. There it inhibits an enzyme that produces a compound called Proto IX. Proto IX is supposed to be in the chloroplast, but when you apply the herbicide, Proto IX accumulates outside of the chloroplast. When the sun comes out, Proto IX reacts with sunlight, what’s called reactive oxygen degradation, and basically destroys the cell structure of the plant. Within a few hours the plant dries up. It becomes paper-thin and completely dehydrates. Injuries like leaf cupping, crinkling, and bronzing appear on some plants, and then typically necrosis and completely dead tissue within a few hours. It’s a pretty fast-acting herbicide, and it works really well under the right circumstances.Some plants are very sensitive because they can’t metabolize the herbicide. Some plants are very tolerant because they metabolize the herbicide very quickly. Since some plants can metabolize it very quickly, a plant can become resistant by developing the ability to metabolize this chemistry, which would be non-target site resistance. Most PPO inhibitors degrade very quickly in the environment. Most compounds have a very short half-life and have very poor pre-emergence activity. However, a compound like sulfentrazone (Authority; Authority Charge) can have a very long half-life, 280 days. In the south US that may actually affect rotation of your crops because of the long residual activity of some of that chemistry. [Ed. Note: In Canada, carfentrazone has a short half-life and when used as a pre-seed treatment, there are no cropping restrictions. Sulfentrazone’s longer half-life means it can be used as a pre-seed surface application that provides residual weed control, but also means there are re-cropping restrictions.]The PPO inhibitors are very rapidly metabolized and don’t stick around in water. They’re considered to be a pretty safe chemistry.A resurgence in use There used to be a lot of use of the PPO chemistries in the 1990s. In 1996, the first Roundup Ready crops were introduced and their use dramatically decreased. Where PPOs were used extensively for weed control in soybean, it was replaced by glyphosate. But the use has picked up again because of glyphosate resistant weeds. It is a great tool to manage glyphosate resistant weeds in the south and the Midwest as well. In Canada it might be a good tool in the future as you see more and more glyphosate resistant weeds. Chart: Use of PPO inhibitors Some plants have become resistant to PPO chemistry. For most of them we don’t know the mechanism. But for waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, and ragweed, we know there have been mutations on the target site gene. That’s similar to what happens with ALS inhibitors and ACCase inhibitors. That’s what happens with some glyphosate resistance in some cases. At the target site, there are two genes that make two proteins. One goes to the chloroplast; one goes to the mitochondria. When the plant became resistant, many scientists sequenced the gene for the protein that goes to the chloroplast because that’s where the herbicide works by preventing chlorophyll synthesis. However, no mutation was found at that location. Dr. Tranel at the University of Illinois sequenced the other gene that goes to the mitochondria. He found that there was a mutation where a whole amino acid was removed, and that was kind of unusual. But there was also something added to the gene, and that was the first time this was reported to happen in plants. This was very unusual. The herbicide is supposed to inhibit the chloroplast enzyme, but that little bit of DNA that was added to the sequence made the mitochondrial gene also go the chloroplast. So now you have a plant cell where a resistant trait is in both locations – the mitochondria and the chloroplast. That’s important because these resistant plants now have the capacity to do the deletion and develop resistance, and have the capacity to move it to both locations. This has proven to be true in Palmer amaranth, water hemp, and ragweed. There’s no other herbicide so far that we know where plants have become resistant by this mechanism.We looked at many genetic sequences to look for all the potential plants that have the same gene structure that could have a deletion. One of the plants is kochia. Kochia is a big weed in Colorado and in Canada. We now know that kochia is already predisposed to that mutation. If we keep using PPO chemistry the way we’ve been doing it and try to control kochia, most likely kochia will become resistant to that chemistry in exactly the same way that Palmer amaranth has become resistant. If you know a weed is predisposed to the mutation, then you should be scouting for weed escapes when you use that herbicide.Now because you have resistance doesn’t mean you have resistance. What? Some interesting research was conducted by Peter Sikkema in Canada where fleabane escaped control by PPO chemistry. He demonstrated in the greenhouse that those seeds he collected in the field were resistant. What’s interesting is he went back the next year to the same field, applied the same herbicide and had 100 per cent control. An escape does not mean that your field is infested with the resistant weeds. In this case, it could be that the resistant weeds did not over-winter very well. So be on the lookout, but don’t freak out. If you have an escape it could be just something that’s a freak accident. But always be on the lookout for those escapes because we know that it can happen. Management strategiesI’m not very familiar with the Canadian system, so suggested management strategies come from Arkansas where they deal with PPO resistance all the time in soybean. These may not necessarily be applicable to Canada. Use two active ingredients at planting, typically metribuzin (Group 5) and a Group 15 such as acetolachlor. Both are needed for successful residual activity. Then 21 days later use a post-application of glufosinate (Group 10), dicamba or 2,4-D (Group 4s) tank mixed with Dual (s-metolachlor; Group 15) for additional residual activity. In Arkansas, glyphosate is not useful because most major weeds including PPO resistant biotypes are already resistant to glyphosate. ALS herbicides are not useful in Arkansas either, as about 50 per cent of weeds have resistance to this group.For more stories on this topic, check out Top Crop Manager's Focus On: Herbicide Resistance, the first in our digital edition series.
Weed resistance to herbicides is not a new issue. Canada has reported resistance issues in weeds to at least six different herbicide groups. As an increasing number of weeds no longer respond to herbicide, it is important to know more about the issue and how to detect it. 
The Government of Canada will invest $3.7 million to the Eastern Canada Oilseeds Development Alliance (ECODA), announced federal Minister of Agriculture Lawrence MacAulay at the Atlantic Soy processing plant in Belle River, Prince Edward Island.
The Canadian Grain Commission is updating its Eastern wheat class structure to meet the evolving needs of the Canadian grain industry and increase flexibility for producers, breeders, processors and handlers.
A new export facility in Surrey, B.C. will expand trade capacity and speed for Western Canadian grain producers.
Canada and China pledged to double agricultural trade by 2025 at the Economic and Financial Strategic Dialogue in Beijing on Nov. 12, co-chaired by Canadian Minister of Finance Bill Morneau and Minister of International Trade Diversification Jim Carr.
The passing of Bill C-79 on Oct. 16, an act to implement the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), by the House of Commons is an opportunity for the canola industry to increase value-added exports and benefit the entire canola value chain, according to a statement by the Canola Council of Canada. 
The plan was all set – the 7,000-acre grain farm would transition from father to son, as would two other enterprises, each earning about one million dollars in revenue annually. Out of everyone in the family, only one son was interested in farming.
U.S., Canada and Mexico agree to a new trade agreement, the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement or USMCA, to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). 
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) released its Medium Term Outlook (MTO), an economic projection of the domestic and international agricultural markets from 2017 to 2027. This year's projections show continued growth for the agricultural sector and put Canada within reach of its $75 billion target in agriculture, agri-food and seafood exports annually by 2025.
Cereal grains and other major food crops can become contaminated with mycotoxins, which are naturally occurring toxins produced by mold that grow in certain conditions. Some of the mycotoxins familiar to the grains industry include Ochratoxin A, Deoxynivalenol (DON) and others, which are not only regulatory and international trade concerns, but also potential health issues. Mycotoxins can develop at various crop stages, pre-harvest, harvest and in storage, but cannot be detected visually and have no taste or smell.
As of July 31, Canada's total stocks of wheat and barley were down from the same date a year earlier, while stocks of canola, oats, dry peas and lentils increased, according to the latest report from Statistics Canada. WheatTotal stocks of wheat were down 9.9 per cent to 6.2 million tonnes compared with July 31, 2017. The decline was due to a 22.5 per cent decrease in commercial stocks to 3.5 million tonnes. This was offset by a 15 per cent increase in on-farm stocks (+347,000 tonnes).Despite lower production, higher wheat quality in 2017-2018 (as stated in the latest Canada: Outlook for Principal Field Crop, published by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) compared with the previous year contributed to increased exports, which could have lowered commercial stocks.CanolaAt the national level, canola stocks were up 78.2 per cent to 2.4 million tonnes as of July 31, 2018. On-farm stocks, which are concentrated in the Prairie provinces, were behind the increase (+238.9 per cent to 1.4 million tonnes). Commercial stocks were 3.9 per cent higher compared with July 31, 2017, at 954,000 tonnes.Canola production in 2017/2018 reached a record high 21.3 million tonnes, while deliveries were down compared with the previous crop year, pushing up total stocks as of July 31, 2018.Dry peas and lentilsOverall stocks of lentils totalled 876,000 tonnes as of July 31, 2018, up 561,000 tonnes (+178.1 per cent) from the same date in 2017. The increase was due to higher farm stocks (+223.7 per cent). Meanwhile, total stocks of dry peas rose 116.7 per cent to 650 000 tonnes.Increases as of July 31, 2018, could be attributable to higher import tariffs introduced by India. Exports of both dry peas and lentils as of July 31 were down substantially from the same date last year, with dry pea exports declining 21.1 per cent to 3.1 million tonnes and lentil exports falling 36.8 per cent to 1.6 million tonnes.BarleyTotal barley stocks were down 40.8 per cent to 1.3 million tonnes as of July 31. Stocks held on-farm, which accounted for 81.4 per cent of total stocks, fell 42.8 per cent to one million tonnes. Meanwhile, commercial stocks declined 30 per cent to 233,000 tonnes.OatsAs of July 31, total stocks of oats were up 11.5 per cent to 784,000 tonnes year over year. Increases in both on-farm (+6.3 per cent) and commercial (+35.4 per cent) stock levels led to the overall rise.
Farm Management Canada (FMC) and the Canadian Association of Diploma in Agriculture Programs (CADAP) are accepting applications for the 2018-19 Excellence Award for Agricultural Students.
The discovery of (and subsequent announcement about) a few unregulated genetically modified (GM) wheat plants on an isolated access road in southern Alberta raised dozens of questions from the ag community and the general public – and the confusion still remains.
Research shows that soil type and weather conditions have the greatest impact on how much nitrogen grain corn needs. Taking into account these variables can help producers prevent under- or over-application of nitrogen.
In the past, canola growers have been advised to plant slowly to achieve precise seed placement. But now, the message is changing more than ever, as high-speed planters are garnering more interest.
Alberta producers who own an irrigated agricultural operation within the province are now able to apply for a program that will help them with the costs of upgrading their irrigation equipment and moving to a more efficient system.
Row-to-row variance with bulk metering systems wasn’t really on the radar until recently, because farmers couldn’t really do much about it. Recent research by the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI) at Portage la Prairie, Man. identified how much variation actually exists.
Agricultural equipment dealers are working with Saskatchewan high schools to find a new generation of employees. | READ MORE
It’s 5 a.m. on a calm, sunny morning in June. Perfect time to spray? Not so fast. A temperature inversion is likely, which could result in small spray droplets remaining suspended in the air and moving off-target.
The Truck King Challenge does “real world testing” in order to determine which truck will come out on top. The judges, a group of automobile journalists, drive the trucks on a course with no payload, then with payload, and finally towing a trailer – all on the same route, one after the other, back to back.
The Government of Saskatchewan recently approved a new recycling program for agricultural grain bags. The program, set to launch this month, provides a responsible option for producers to return these large, heavy bags for recycling and to prevent environmental harm from open burning or improper disposal.The recycling program will be operated by Cleanfarms, a non-profit environmental stewardship organization, and regulated by The Agricultural Packaging Product Waste Stewardship Regulations, which came into effect in July 2016.With the assistance of funding from the Ministry of Agriculture, Cleanfarms will establish 20 grain bag collection sites in 2018, with more sites planned for 2019.The Ministry of Agriculture funded a grain bag recycling pilot program from 2011 to 2017, operated by Simply Agriculture Solutions. Through the program, 4,209 metric tonnes of material was shipped to recyclers – equivalent to approximately 28,000 grain bags.The new program will include an environmental handling fee of $0.25 per kilogram, which will be paid at the point of purchase effective November 1, 2018.
Canadian National Railway Co. is apologizing for failing to keep grain shipments moving reliably by rail, and says it’s taking immediate steps to clear the backlog – including mobilizing more train cars and workers.
Bayer has launched Zone Spray, a feature inside Bayer Digital Farming’s Field Manager. Zone Spray's main goal is to ultimately "help canola farmers improve their economic return by using data to optimize fungicide applications," according to a press release. The feature uses satellite imagery to assess field biomass, where it's categorized into zones. Farmers are able to review and then control where they want to apply a fungicide. By targeting higher biomass field zones, farmers can use inputs more sustainably by applying the fungicide exactly when and where it is needed.Zone Spray utilizes a simple interface and is designed to integrate with precision agriculture equipment already available in cabs.For more information, visit digitalfarming.ca.
Bill Prybylski produces thousands of bushels of grain on his farm in Willowbrook, Sask., about two hours northeast of Regina.But most of his product is still in storage or loaded onto trucks when it should have been shipped already. Prybylski is one of thousands of people in Canada's agriculture industry affected by a rail car crunch.Just 25 per cent of Prybylski's grain has been transported this season. Usually, he said, 50 per cent of his product is hauled by now. | READ MORE
Horsch has introduced two new models to its line of Joker RT high-speed discs: the RT18 and RT22.
Canada has always been an agricultural powerhouse, but these days it’s not just about selling prairie wheat, P.E.I. potatoes and maple syrup to the world. Now we’re also building bio-cars from ag-based fibres, composites and foams. We’re creating naturally derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that help fight disease. We’re cutting carbon emissions by finding valuable uses for agricultural wastes, and we’re boosting agricultural productivity in all kinds of ways.
Biofuelnet Canada (BFN) has launched a call for expressions of interest (EOI) for our proposal to the Agri-Science Cluster program of Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada (AAFC) later this fall.
US researchers have maintained that miscanthus, long speculated to be the top biofuel producer, yields more than twice as much as switchgrass in the US using an open-source bioenergy crop database gaining traction in plant science, climate change, and ecology research.
According to research by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, extraction with deep eutectic solvents (DESs) offer an efficient, sustainable and easy method for dissolving proteins from agrobiomass by-products. DESs are mixtures of solids that form a liquid solution at low temperatures when mixed in suitable ratios.
As OMAFRA’s industrial crop specialist based at the Simcoe Research Station, Jim Todd works with non-food crops that have a variety of industrial uses – including energy production, or as a source of specialty oils, chemicals or medicinal compounds. 
As foreign competition and falling U.S. demand are hurting American tobacco farmers, a Virginia company is preparing the crop’s second act as a biofuel.
The Cellulosic Sugar Producers Co-operative (CSPC) and its partners have almost finished putting all the pieces in place for a southern Ontario value chain to turn crop residues into sugars. Those pieces include a feasibility study, a technical-economic assessment and a collaboratively developed business plan. Some important steps still have to be completed, but they are aiming for processing to start in 2018.
Jan. 20, 2017 - The Vancouver Declaration resulting from the First Ministers' Meeting in March 2016 saw the beginning of a co-ordinated national approach to carbon risk mitigation. Buoyed by support from high-profile business groups (including key oil and gas sector leaders), the First Ministers' Meeting on Dec. 9, 2016 in Ottawa saw the adoption of the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, which included several significant announcements regarding federal investment in green infrastructure, public transit, and clean technology and innovation. Canada's industrial powerhouse, Ontario, is ahead of the pack when it comes to low-carbon electricity policy, and has been for quite some time. Ten years after the launch of the province's early procurement programs for wind, solar, hydro and other forms of renewable energy, the province enjoys a vibrant renewable energy sector with leading-edge manufacturing capabilities, a coal-free electricity system, and a project development and finance sector that is active around the globe. Across the U.S. border, things have changed somewhat recently, at least, at the federal level.  | READ MORE.
Today many biofuel refineries operate for only seven months each year, turning freshly harvested crops into ethanol and biodiesel. When supplies run out, biorefineries shut down for the other five months. However, according to recent research, dual-purpose biofuel crops could produce both ethanol and biodiesel for nine months of the year – increasing profits by as much as 30 per cent.
Dec. 9, 2016 - The federal and provincial governments have teamed up to help implement a bioeconomy strategy for Northern Ontario. The two senior levels of government are providing a total of $216,792 to help put a plan into action aimed at creating new renewable energy opportunities throughout the North. Developed in 2015 by the Biomass North Development Centre, in partnership with the Union of Ontario Indians, the strategy will look to reduce policy and regulatory barriers for the industry, develop a skills and training road map for future workers and better inform the public and potential partners about biomass applications and concepts. “This is an opportunity of partnerships and benefits for all of the North,” said Dawn Lambe, the biomass development centre's executive director. | READ MORE.
Dec. 1, 2016 - An Italian company is interested in turning biomass into a new southern Alberta industry. And the Alberta government is providing the data to show what would work. Representatives from Alberta Economic Development and Trade, along with a spokesperson for Beta Renewables from Tortona, Italy, outlined the potential to Lethbridge County Council on Monday. Earlier this year, the county was one of five Alberta jurisdictions to sign onto a formal biomass mapping project across the province. The study found 12 million tonnes of biomass available annually in the form of straw and other byproducts of the region’s grain and speciality crop production – plus 633,000 tonnes of waste from livestock production. “This is good news,” Reeve Lorne Hickey said, as council members asked for more details. For Lethbridge-area farms growing flax, one councillor pointed out, it could provide a way to get rid of flax straw – too strong to be used like other straw. | READ MORE.
The president of a new farm co-op says it's working to sign up 200 to 300 members to supply corn stalks and leaves, also known as stover, as well as wheat stalks, to a proposed new plant in Sarnia, Ont., that will turn the biomass into sugar. The Sarnia Observer reports. | READ MORE

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