Ontario barley fields still yellow after cold temperatures
By OMAFRA/Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association
May 21, 2013, Ontario – Some barley fields are quite yellow after cold temperatures, but should rapidly recover, according to the latest field crop report from OMAFRA, released May 15.The report, courtesy of the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association, also recaps planting updates for corn, forages and soybeans in Ontario.
Canola: Some growers are asking about impact of planting date on yield. The most important yield determining factor is temperature conditions during flowering, with 20°C being ideal. Some growers have experienced good success with later planting which may be the result of favourable moisture and temperature during flowering. Canola varieties typically begin flowering within 45 to 50 days after planting. Also, consider when the crop will be ready for harvest, which is typically within 95 to 110 days after planting. Canola planted now should be monitored for swede midge. Flea beetles are now also evident in emerged canola, on volunteer canola and weeds. Monitor canola up to the four leaf stage for flea beetle. Seed treatments provide control for three to four weeks for low-moderate levels of flea beetles.
Edible beans: Seeding rate for white or black beans in 15-inch rows is 150,000 seeds per acre (three to four seeds per foot of row), 110,000 seeds per acre in 21-inch rows (3.5 to 4.5 seeds per foot) and 90,000 seeds per acre (4.5 to five seeds per foot) in 30-inch rows. Dry beans require significant moisture to germinate. Plant into excellent soils conditions, at a uniform depth of 1.5 to 2.5 inches, striving to have the seed placed 1.25 centimetres (½ inch) into moist soil.
Advanced wheat in Essex is at full flag, with most early seeded wheat at second node and later planted at first node. Weed control products need to be applied before the flag leaf stage. Early forage rye is approaching boot stage and needs to be cut immediately if quality forage is desired. Winter barley development is slow: the crop may have suffered from cold injury. Sulphur deficiency is prevalent in fields with no S applied. Symptoms are a general yellowing of eroded knolls or low organic matter areas. Correct immediately! Apply (11 kg/ha) 10 lbs/ac of actual S as sulphate (SO4), either foliar or soil applied. Mn deficiency is also evident. Apply (2.25 kg/ha) 2 lbs/ac of actual Mn as a foliar application. Disease levels remain low. Cereal leaf beetle damage is evident in traditional hot spots. Scout and spray if needed.
Spring cereals are emerging, with some variable stands in the drier parts of Eastern Ontario. Some barley fields are quite yellow after cold temperatures, but should rapidly recover. Frost seeded crops are at the early tillering stage, and weed control needs to be completed immediately.
Corn planting continued to progress rapidly, with 85 per cent of the crop in the ground by May 15. Some exceptions are areas where heavier soils continued to dry slowly or where rainfall amounts were higher. Crop Heat Unit (CHU) accumulation in the first 14 days of May has been 203 and 222 for London, and Ottawa respectively, with the 30 year average being 156 for both locations. Since corn requires approximately 180 CHU to emerge, most of the corn planted in the first few days of May has emerged. Localised pounding rains have caused some crusting. Keep an eye out for fields that might benefit from a pass with the rotary hoe. If rain was not received within five to seven days after application of pre-emergent herbicides, a shallow cultivation is required to activate the herbicides.
Forages: Early maturing orchard grass varieties have headed. Dairy producers are monitoring alfalfa maturity and will begin harvesting haylage soon. Growing Degree Days are currently normal, but two weeks behind last year. Scissors Cutting and PEAQ (Predictive Equations for Alfalfa Quality) Sticks are also methods used to determine when to harvest for optimal quality. Watch new seedings closely for annual broadleaf weeds and to determine optimum time of spraying. The risk of injury to alfalfa seedlings is greatly increased when 2,4-DB application is made outside of the first- to the third trifoliate stage window. 2,4-DB can suppress legume growth for a period of two to three weeks and severe injury can occur under drought or high temperatures.
Pastures: Grasses are advancing quickly with orchardgrass now starting to head. Using a quick rotation to graze all paddocks before the grass becomes mature is important. In a rotational system, look to the last paddock in the rotation and adjust the rotation speed to arrive at the last paddock before the grasses have headed out. To maintain good growth throughout the summer, do not over graze pastures, leaving seven to 10 centimetres (or more) of green material will allow the plants to recover quickly. Applying 40 kg/ha of nitrogen after the first or second rotation will stimulate growth. If you will need to source extra forage consider planting an annual crop for grazing. For more information on annual crops follow this link http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/pub811/3species.htm#annual.
Soybean seeding is well under way. Some growers have finished seeding. Soil conditions have been good. Soybeans should not be seeded too deep at this date because cooler soil temperatures will slow emergence. As long as the seed is put into moisture, a 2.5 centimetre (one inch) seeding depth is sufficient in no-till. Seed should be placed about one centimetre into moisture. Switching to shorter maturity beans rather than adapted varieties to a specific area is not recommended unless planting date is delayed past June 15. Choosing a shorter day bean now is unnecessary and can significantly reduce yield potential even if winter wheat is to be seeded this fall. If planting is delayed into June seeding rates should be kept high unless the field has a history of white mould. If planting later than the first week of June increase seeding rates by 10 per cent.