Harvesting
With many soybean fields across the countryside just starting to change colour, harvest is not likely to begin anytime soon. A cool, wet spring delayed soybean planting in much of the province and cooler temperatures in August and September have pushed harvest back this fall compared to the last two years. As a result, growers are wondering whether or not they will be able to get winter wheat planted at an optimum time. READ MORE
Published in Harvesting
With a later than normal planting window and a summer growing season seemingly short on summer weather, some growers have been monitoring their corn growth stages and asking about gauging the risks associated with corn maturity and frost, particularly those who planted very late or have longer maturity hybrids. While there are still several weeks left to the growing season, a few things growers trying to gauge their crop stage for frost risk may want to consider include:

Crop Staging

Clearly, the closer to maturity (black layer) the crop is, the less impact a frost event will have on the crop. For quick review:

The emergence of silks is the R1 stage. As a rough guideline, once pollination occurs, it takes about 60 more days for the crop to reach physiological maturity. Thus, silk timing can give a bit of an indication of when maturity of the corn crop may be expected – a crop that pollinated around July 25th may be expected to reach maturity or black layer sometime around September 25th. While there can be some small differences across hybrid maturities, hybrid maturity ratings have a much more significant impact on the length of time in vegetative stages than reproductive stages.

The R2 blister stage occurs following pollination when fertilized kernels are just beginning to develop, while the R3 milk stage occurs when kernels are turning yellow and are beginning to fill with an opaque milky fluid. Grain fill is rapid by the R3 stage, and maturity under normal conditions would be 5-6 weeks away.

The R4 dough stage occurs when the milk solution turns pasty as starch continues to form, with some kernels beginning to dent as dough begins to turn to hard starch at the dent ends of kernels. Under normal conditions, the dough stage may be generally 3-5 weeks from maturity.

The R5 dent stage occurs when the majority of kernels have dented, and the milk line, which separates the hard starch phase from the soft dough phase, progresses from the dent end towards the cob. The dent stage may last approximately 3 weeks.

The R6 maturity or black layer stage marks physiological maturity. This occurs when a small layer of cells at the base of the kernel near where the kernel connects to the cob die and turn black, which marks the end of grain fill from the cob into the developing kernel. Maximum dry matter accumulation has occurred, so any frost or stress event after this stage will have little impact on yield unless harvestability is compromised. Black layer normally forms once milk line has reach the base of the kernel, although significant stress events (extended period of very cool average temperatures, significant defoliation) can result in black layer formation before the milk line has reached the base of the kernel.

Frost Severity

In regards to frost severity, a light frost (ie. 0°C) may damage or kill leaves, but not be cold enough, or last long enough to actually penetrate into the stem and kill the plant. While premature leaf death limits further grain fill from photosynthesis, a living stem can still translocate dry matter to the developing grain to continue to provide some grain fill after a light frost event.

In the event where temperatures are low enough (ie. -2°C), or last long enough to penetrate and kill the entire plant, there is no ability of the plant to continue filling grain, and yield at that point has been fixed.

Any frost event during the blister or milk stage would result in significant grain yield losses as significant grain fill is still yet to occur at these stages.

A light frost event at the dough stage may reduce yields by 35% while a killing frost may reduce yields by 55% (Lauer, 2004).

Yield loss in the dent stage depends on the relative time left to mature. A light frost at the beginning of dent stage may reduce yields by 25% while a killing frost may reduce yields by 40%. During the mid-dent stage, significant dry matter accumulation has occurred, and light and killing frosts may reduce yields around 5% and 10% respectively.

Estimating Time to Maturity

Time required to reach maturity can be estimated by knowing the approximate Crop Heat Units (CHU) required for each reproductive corn stage. A general approximation of CHU required to complete the various R growth stages in corn is presented in Table 1. Scouting corn for the crop stages described above and referring to Table 1 will give an indication of how many CHU are required for the corn crop to reach maturity.



Comparing the estimated CHU required from Table 2 to an estimated number of CHU available until typical first frost date gives an idea of how much CHU would be available in an “average” year, and how close to maturity the crop may be for the average expected first frost date. Typical first killing frost dates based on 30 year climate normal across a selection of locations in the Province are presented in Table 2, while CHU values can be estimated through calculation tables in the Field Scouting chapter of Pub 811 Agronomy Guide for Field Crops, or through other weather information providers such as Farmzone.com or WeatherCentral.ca.

This Report includes data from WIN and Environment Canada
Published in Corn
The Alberta Wheat Commission (AWC), the Saskatchewan Wheat Development Commission (Sask Wheat) and the Manitoba Wheat and Barley Growers Association (MWBGA) announced the formation of the Canadian Wheat Research Coalition (CWRC), a federal not-for-profit corporation that will facilitate long-term investments aimed at improving profitability and competitiveness for western Canadian wheat farmers.

The CWRC will facilitate a collaborative approach to producer funding of regional and national research projects in variety development and agronomy including the next Canadian National Wheat Cluster and core wheat breeding agreements with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and universities. Additional regional projects that align with variety development and agronomic priorities will also be considered for funding.

The three wheat commissions will serve as founding members on the farmer-led board of directors.

The structure allows for additional producer or private sector groups that share an interest in advancing wheat research in Canada to join as organizational members.

This inclusive arrangement provides a platform for the CWRC to pursue new public, private, producer partnerships (4Ps).

The formation of the CWRC directly follows the commissions’ increased responsibility in funding core wheat breeding agreements and the national wheat cluster, coinciding with the end of the Western Canadian Deduction (WCD) on July 31, 2017. Under the previous structure, the Western Grains Research Foundation (WGRF) led these research initiatives through WCD funding.

In preparation for the end of the WCD, the commissions signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) outlining their agreement to partner in setting variety development priorities and funding commitments that meet the needs of wheat farmers in Western Canada. As a result of the MOU, the commissions will ensure continuity in new spring wheat variety development is maintained through the CWRC, and will continue to engage WGRF as a key player through this transition. Project funding will be shared on a proportionate basis by commissions based on check-off revenue.

The CWRC will be administered by a host commission, which will rotate every three years starting with Sask Wheat. The CWRC’s first board will consist of eight farmers including Kevin Auch, Jason Saunders and Terry Young representing AWC, Ken Rosaasen, Glenn Tait and Laura Reiter representing Sask Wheat, and Cale Jeffries and Dylan Wiebe representing MWBGA.
Published in Corporate News
Collaboration, communication and co-ordination are front and centre as Canadian Pacific prepares to deliver best-in-class service in the 2017-18 crop year.
Published in Imports/Exports
BASF Canada reports the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) has established maximum residue limits (MRLs) for Heat LQ as a harvest aid in cereals in time for this year’s harvest. This allows BASF to establish MRLs in all major export markets to support the use of Heat LQ as a pre-harvest herbicide in wheat and barley with glyphosate.
Published in Corporate News
A recent study by the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI) found two relatively minor changes in soybean harvest – reducing combine speed and investing in an air reel – can bring significant economic benefit to producers.
Published in Harvesting
Western bean cutworm (WBC) continues to be a concern for pollinating corn in areas with high trap counts. Peak moth flight has occurred in counties in the southwest but counties in Central and Eastern Ontario have not reached peak yet. Moths will now be looking for late planted corn that is still in the early tasseling stages or will focus on edible beans. Focus scouting efforts in those corn fields that do not have dried silks yet. Edible bean growers need to scout for pod feeding once pods are present. Edible bean fields that are adjacent to corn fields that reached WBC eggmass threshold this year are likely also at risk. It is best to control fields as soon as pod feeding is observed. The larvae are exposed to the insecticide when they make holes in the pods to get to the seed. For additional information on WBC thresholds as well as optimal scouting and insecticide application timing, click here. Information on product choices is available in the OMAFRA Field Crop Protection Guide.

Post Wheat Harvest Manure Application
For livestock producers and those using organic amendments, the post wheat harvest season is an excellent opportunity to apply manure for nutrients and organic matter. Spreading workload, reduced compaction and reduced risk of environmental losses from runoff and erosion, as well as the opportunity to combine the benefits of feeding cover crops with manure, are all benefits of manure applied during the growing season.

Where manure or other organic amendments are applied to fields it is important to take a sample for analysis to help determine available nutrients and potential commercial fertilizer savings. Along with analysis for N, P and K in manure, additional tests will help determine nutrient availability. Testing for sulphur will provide an indication of elemental sulphur content which is released to a crop similar to organic nitrogen and can provide all or some of the sulphur needs, especially for wheat and forage crops. Testing for C:N (carbon to nitrogen) ratio for solid manure and amendments will help indicate if additional commercial N will be required for a corn crop. C:N ratios below 20:1 will have adequate nitrogen to help with the breakdown of carbon. Materials with C:N ratios over 30:1 (especially for spring applied materials) should determine with pre-side dress N test if addition N will be required. With liquid materials, testing the pH will help determine the potential for rapid ammonium N loss where manure is not injected or immediately incorporated. Liquid manure with high NH4-N levels combined with high pH (above 7.8) will lose the majority of the quickly available nitrogen in the first 24 hours, especially when combined with warm dry soils and/or high winds over bare soils.

Often there is too little credit given to the nitrogen supplied by fall-applied manure. A general guideline with fall applied manure is to credit half the total nitrogen from the analysis. Cattle manure with heavy bedding and/or amendments with high carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio will have lower (30 to 40 per cent) nitrogen credit while broiler poultry manure will have higher N credits (50 – 60 per cent). Mild winter conditions will increase available N from solid manure but can reduce nitrogen contribution from liquid manure where ammonium N (NH4-N) is higher. An early warm period in spring also increases nitrogen contribution from manure to a crop, while a cool wet spring will slow down nutrient release; not able to meet the N needs of a rapid growing corn crop during the period ahead of pollination. Slow release nitrogen from manure will contribute to yield after pollination, especially in areas where frequent and heavy rain may have resulted in denitrification or leaching of commercial N sources. Tissue tests of fields with evidence of some N deficiency on lower corn leaves reveal that levels are still within the normal range. Where manure or other amendments were applied there should be adequate nitrogen to meet remaining crop needs.
Published in Harvesting
It's time to scout for western bean cutworm, especially as moth flight activity climbs in Ontario. Although there are no significant reports of soybean aphids, growers are still urged to scout by OMAFRA. Winter wheat harvest is underway, while growers are reminded to plant cover crops after wheat harvest to minimize the amount of annual weeds going to seed. 

Cereals
Winter wheat harvest has begun throughout southwest Ontario but intermittent rainfall has caused delays. Some farmers in Essex County have finished harvest and initial word is that the quality and yield of the crop has been good. Harvest progress is likely seven to 10 days behind what was observed in 2016, but comparable to the 2015 season.

Post-harvest weed management
A significant amount of annual weed seeds can be produced and dispersed after wheat harvest if the ground is left fallow. In some years, annual weed seed can mature in as little as four weeks after harvest. Planting a cover crop (i.e. oats) after wheat harvest can do a nice job of minimizing the amount of annual weeds going to seed and then allows for an opportunity in the fall to terminate the cover crop and deal with perennial weeds at the same time. If it is not desirable to plant a cover crop, shallow tillage can also reduce the amount of weeds setting seed and will allow the perennial weeds to re-grow so that they can be managed in the fall.

If red clover was inter-seeded into the wheat crop there are a couple of ways that you can knock back annual weed growth so that you can let the clover grow as much as possible and maximize its nitrogen credit. The tried and true method, but most labour intensive, is to “clip” or trim the top of the red clover which will ‘chop off’ the weed seed heads at the same time. More recently OMAFRA and the University of Guelph have experimented with the application of MCPA as a way to manage broadleaf weeds in a red clover cover crop. There are three key learnings from this work:

1) The ester formulation of MCPA causes significantly less plant damage than the amine formulation.
2) Red clover biomass is initially stunted during the first week after application but does recover within two to three weeks.
3) Targeting broadleaf weeds when they are smaller will result in better control. If annual grassy weeds are predominant then the application of MCPA Ester will be insufficient and clipping is a better option to minimize weed seed dispersal.

Corn
Western bean cutworm moths have been found in traps throughout southwestern Ontario. An interactive map of trapping numbers can be found at cornpest.ca. Moth flight activity has indicated that it’s a good time to scout fields for egg masses which have become visible in several fields with some approaching or are above the action threshold of five egg mass per 100 corn plants. Peak flight has not occurred yet in Ontario so to provide the most protection with one application, time the application once threshold has been reached and when there is an ear developing with fresh silks. Download the pestmanager app (pestmanager.ca) to have access to management options for this pest.

Soybeans
There have been no significant reports of soybean aphids, although regular scouting should be done from now until the R6 (full seed) stage of soybean to minimize any yield loss with this pest. The action threshold is 250 aphids per plant, and with actively increasing populations on 80 per cent of those plants when the crop is in the R1 stage until end of R5 stage.

Edible beans
Monitor traps to determine western bean cutworm (WBC) presence in your area and be aware of what WBC infestations are like in adjacent corn fields. Bean fields should be scouted as soon as a pod is developing to spot any pod feeding by WBC. Refer to the moth trapping maps at cornpest.ca to identify areas where moths are actively being trapped.
Published in Corporate News
April snowfall in parts of Canada’s prairies has halted efforts to harvest more than 2 million acres (809,370 hectares) of grain leftover from 2016, delaying spring planting in some areas by at least two weeks. | READ MORE
Published in Corporate News
Fababeans adapt well to cooler, wetter regions in Saskatchewan, and are proving to be a good option for growers who have been dealing with excess moisture and are looking for an alternative pulse option.
Alberta Financial Services Corporation reports more than 960,000 acres out of 14.7 million acres of provincially insured crops have not been harvested.

Those who will not be harvesting their fields need to contact ASFC for a pre-harvest inspection. Due to the high volume of inspections this spring, it's recommended for producers to monitor their crops for location, amount, and type of damage in their fields. | READ MORE
Published in Corporate News
Though this week’s federal budget put a spotlight on agri-food as one of Canada’s “key-growth industries,” meat packers, mushroom growers and others in the business say they need better access to foreign labour to grow. | READ MORE
Published in Corporate News
It may be a while before robots and drones are as common as tractors and combine harvesters on farms, but the high-tech tools may soon play a major role in helping feed the world's rapidly growing population.

At the University of Georgia, a team of researchers is developing a robotic system of all-terrain rovers and unmanned aerial drones that can more quickly and accurately gather and analyze data on the physical characteristics of crops, including their growth patterns, stress tolerance and general health. This information is vital for scientists who are working to increase agricultural production in a time of rapid population growth.

While scientists can gather data on plant characteristics now, the process is expensive and painstakingly slow, as researchers must manually record data one plant at a time. But the team of robots developed by Li and his collaborators will one day allow researchers to compile data on entire fields of crops throughout the growing season.

The project addresses a major bottleneck that's holding up plant genetics research, said Andrew Paterson, a co-principal investigator. Paterson, a world leader in the mapping and sequencing of flowering-plant genomes, is a Regents Professor in UGA's College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and Franklin College of Arts and Sciences.

"The robots offer us not only the means to more efficiently do what we already do, but also the means to gain information that is presently beyond our reach," he said. "For example, by measuring plant height at weekly intervals instead of just once at the end of the season, we can learn about how different genotypes respond to specific environmental parameters, such as rainfall." | READ MORE
Published in Precision Ag
Following a vote at its annual general meeting, the Alberta Wheat Commission (AWC) announced that the province’s wheat farmers will pay nine cents per tonne less on a single wheat check-off of $1.09 beginning in August 2017. This is subject to provincial government approval processes intended to be in place by this time. The new, single wheat check-off will combine the current AWC levy with the Western Canadian Deduction (WCD).

The move to a single wheat check-off is part of AWC’s plan to assume the funding obligations of the WCD that will sunset on July 31, 2017. In this model, AWC will assume a greater role in funding new wheat varieties and will maintain current funding commitments for the Canadian International Grains Institute (Cigi), which contributes to market support, education and testing services to meet the needs of Canada’s key customers. AWC will also maintain its current portfolio of programming.

The WCD check-off is currently applied to all sales of wheat delivered to licensed grain buyers in Western Canada. AWC’s western Canadian counterparts, Saskatchewan Wheat Development Commission and the Manitoba Wheat and Barley Growers Association, will also transition to a single check-off. The three commissions recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding to absorb the responsibilities and funding obligations of the WCD.

Prior to the vote on the new check-off at its annual general meemting, AWC administered a survey of Alberta’s wheat farmers to garner producer perceptions on the new check-off value. Survey results indicated 75 percent either strongly or somewhat support the proposed $1.09 check-off. Following approval from the provincial government, AWC will work with grain companies to implement the new service charge amount.  

Learn more at albertawheat.com
Published in Corporate News
Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional profile of a given food crop is improved through plant breeding. In Canada, the biofortification of pulse crops to improve micronutrient content (or “trace elements”) is becoming a major focus of breeding programs.
Published in Pulses
Cool but dry conditions prevailed for the start of the corn growing season as May transitioned from a cooler than average April. May remained dry, with few precipitation events to delay planting. A few localized pockets in southern Ontario were the exception, which received regular rainfall during the first half of the month. Planting started in earnest in many areas during the middle to end of the first week of May and progressed quickly once started. Planting conditions were generally good, although some growers on heavier textured soils reported that slow drying of subsoils were holding off early planting until ground conditions were more fit. Planting was nearing completion in many areas by the end of the following week (May 14), but continued on some heavier textured soils as well as those areas that had been receiving rainfall. Statistics Canada estimated that 2.0 million acres of grain corn and 0.250 million acres of silage corn were planted in Ontario in 2016.

While lingering cool soil temperatures slowed development of the earliest planted corn, emergence was generally good for most fields. With the lack of rainfall in May, corn that had been planted when parts of fields were not quite fit or had not been fully planted into moisture may have struggled to emerge or emerged late. While generally minor overall, this resulted in variability in some fields. Some growers on heavier soils reported emergence issues following the cool weather and rainfall of May 14-15th. A small amount of replanting was reported to have occurred.

The annual OMAFRA Pre-Sidedress-Nitrate-Test (PSNT) survey was conducted at the V3-V4 stage on June 6-7th. With an overall average soil nitrate concentration of 11.2 ppm, levels were average to slightly higher than average. Given the lack of rainfall and low potential for soil saturation during May and June, nitrate losses from leaching or denitrification were unlikely. Below average precipitation in June maintained a wide window for weed control and sidedress nitrogen applications. With the exception of some moisture stress appearing on soils with poor water holding capacity in the drier parts of the province, the corn crop generally looked good and uniform through the end of June.

While some parts of the province received rain in July, many areas continued to be below normal, particularly the Bruce-Grey, Niagara and Central Ontario regions. Fields or parts of fields in these regions were beginning to show signs of moisture stress as corn leaves would wrap. There were some concerns as corn entered the moisture-sensitive tassel and pollination stages during the hot and dry conditions around the week of July 18. Some localized areas received thunderstorm related precipitation around this period.

During grain fill, there were reports of “tip-back” where several rows on the cob tips failed to pollinate and silks remained green. Warm temperatures continued to push crop development. As corn continued the grain filling process, significant rainfall events started to occur during August, with monthly precipitation totals ranging between 100-200 per cent of normal for large portions of the province. Despite this, leaf diseases, where present, typically remained at low levels. Between timely planting and above average heat unit accumulation, there were few concerns about crop maturity as August came to a close.

Silage harvest started in earnest in many areas during the week of September 12, with the exception of some early harvesting of moisture stressed crops. September remained generally dry, which resulted in good silage harvest conditions. Some reported whole plant moisture being drier than what had been anticipated at the start of harvest. Yields were reported to be below average in areas with little rainfall and on soils with poor water holding capacity, while yields in other areas were reported to be average. Lab analysis results suggested vomitoxin levels in silage were higher than normal. 

The annual OMAFRA grain corn vomitoxin survey was conducted from September 23 to 30th. The survey indicated elevated vomitoxin levels with 26 per cent of samples testing above two ppm. Long-term averages for this category run between five and 10 per cent, suggesting some extra monitoring for grain management and feeding may have been required in 2016. Risks may have been elevated from the wet and humid conditions that persisted from August to early September. Poorer pollination of ear tips which resulted in silks remaining green and husk tips that tended to remain tight may have also contributed to this. Western bean cutworm feeding that opened husks for mould establishment was prevalent in many areas as well. The incidence of samples testing higher for vomitoxin decreased east of Toronto.

As the growing season came to a close, heat unit accumulation ranged from average to 100-200 Crop Heat Units (CHU) higher than normal. Coupled with dry weather, corn harvest started early with some combining beginning as early as the last week of September. Harvest started in earnest around October 15, and progressed quickly as dry conditions prevailed for most of the province, resulting in a wide harvest window. Most growers reported moisture levels lower than what was typical for the time of year, and excellent test weights. With the exception of some localized pockets where soybean harvest was delayed, harvest was wrapping up in most areas by the end of the first week of November. Many growers reported yields that were above expectations considering the hot, dry growing season, with the exception of those on soils with poor water holding capacity, or regions which received well below average precipitation. As of December 14, Agricorp corn yields have been reported on 78 per cent of insured acres with an average yield of 167 bu/ac. This compares well to the 10 year average yield of 167 bu/ac for those reported acres.
Published in Corn
Due to wet weather, soybean producers in P.E.I. have left about 810 hectares of soybean in the field, which could mean up to $80,000 in losses, the CBC reports. | READ MORE
Published in Corporate News
With the continued difficulties in getting the crop harvested this fall, an Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AF) specialist is recommending producers get their crops any way they can, as long as it goes through the combine.

“This year’s harvest has been a long, drawn out affair, filled with frustration and disappointment,” said Harry Brook, crop specialist, AF, in a press release. “Many producers still have crop left to be harvested or are taking it off wet, with grain being binned or bagged or piled at unheard of moisture levels. These crops cannot be left out in the cold for extended periods of time unattended.”

Once the crop is harvested and in storage, the excess moisture must be dealt with as soon as possible. “If you don’t have ready access to a grain dryer or have aeration for your bins, you must closely monitor the grain or oilseed for signs of heating. If you see signs that there is heating, you will need to cool the grain by circulating the grain out of and back into the bin. Depending on bin or pile size, this may have to be done fairly frequently.”

Brook has a caution for producers who are using grain bags for short term storage. “Remember that very damp or wet grain in a bag will start to mould. Some moulds will grow at cold temperatures and losses can be high. If bags are used for wet grain storage it should only be short term until crop drying occurs and close monitoring can again begin.”

When drying grain, there are maximum temperatures that should be used on the various crops. “There are tables that outline the maximum temperatures to be used to dry grain. Don’t exceed those maximum drying temperatures to avoid quality losses. With a large amount of moisture to be removed or a big seed, multiple passes of drying and cooling will be needed. In large seed like fababeans, drying might take three or four cycles to bring it down to safe storage levels. The cooling is required to let the moisture content in the seed equalize.”

If there is aeration, some supplemental heat can be used to help dry down the crop. However, Brook said, in this case smaller bins will be more useful than large bins. “To make this work, the fan has to have sufficient air flow to provide at least 0.5 cfm/bushel before adding the supplemental heat. Success will depend on the cleanliness of the grain and, even then, a load or two will have to be circulated out of the bin and back in to help equalize moistures and prevent dry and wet channels in the grain.”

Brook recommends restricting the air temperature increase to 10 C or less as higher temperatures can reduce efficiency and increase the chances of over-drying. For every 10 C increase in air temperature, the relative humidity is halved.

“If you have crop that is damp or wet, monitor it closely for signs of heating and, if it occurs, take the appropriate measures to retain the value of the crop. It is too costly to do otherwise.”
Published in Harvesting
Planting and development
Canola acres in Ontario were higher in 2016 than they were in 2015. The total number of insured canola acres in 2016 was just shy of 30,000 acres, compared to 25,000 acres in 2015. 

With a drier than normal spring throughout much of the province, canola growers were able to plant early. In the southern half of Ontario a majority of the acres were planted in the last week of April and first half of May. Rain in mid-May meant that some canola was planted towards the end of the month. Spring conditions in northeastern Ontario were not much different than that further south, so planting was relatively early in Temiskaming and Nipissing as well. Further north, towards Cochrane, wet weather pushed planting back into June. 

Early planted fields got off to a great start; they emerged within a week and moved quickly through early growth stages. There were pockets of frost in early May but it did not cause significant issues. Most herbicide was applied by the first week of June, and the majority of the crop was beyond 3 leaf stage by early June. Early planted fields began blooming in the second week of June. Dry weather and high day and night time temperatures during July and August caused some stress on canola plants, however, yield results and reports from farmers indicate the stress was not a significant issue.  

Insects and diseases
There was a limited amount of spraying for flea beetle in 2016. Seed treatments were effective in protecting plants from feeding during early growth stages. The good planting conditions and warm spring allowed the crop to advance quickly through early growth stages, minimizing economic damage normally caused by flea beetles. 

Fast, early growth is one of the best ways to avoid significant swede midge damage so the good spring conditions contributed to reduced swede midge damage. By the June 1, swede midge had been detected in Wellington, Renfrew and Grey counties and had reached threshold numbers in the New Liskeard area. Overall, fewer pheromone traps were set this year and data was not collected across the province, making it difficult to judge the actual state of swede midge populations. The need to spray across all counties was varied. Some had pressure that warranted spraying during vulnerable crop growth stages prior to bolting, and there were relatively high rates of success in controlling the pest. Much of the early planted crop was able to quickly grow past susceptible stages.

Spraying for swede midge did occur in northeastern Ontario but not to the extent of years past. A number of fields were planted in areas where there was no recent history of canola, reducing the risk of swede midge damage. In the majority of fields where there was significant swede midge pressure the crop did bolt but side branching was impacted. Swede midge continues to be monitored on fields in north eastern Ontario where there were high populations in years past. In early June, one field where canola had not been planted since 2013, approximately 500 male swede midges were captured in the first 24 hours after the trap was set. Growers recognize they have not entirely beaten the pest but have been able to manage it and keep damage levels low this season. 

In the southern half of Ontario, much of the crop bolted before there was significant swede midge pressure, so major economic damage was avoided. There were reports of swede midge at threshold in the Renfrew area during early growth stages, and those fields were sprayed. Many growers saw increasing trap counts during and after bolting and had to make a decision as to the value of spraying. Many acres through Bruce County, particularly those planted later, were sprayed once for swede midge and the fields had very limited damage in the end. 

Cabbage seedpod weevil (CSW) was identified at threshold levels in Bruce and Grey counties and some fields were sprayed. However, it is unclear as to whether the timing of the spray was at the appropriate crop growth stage. CSW will feed on flower buds to some extent, but the critical control period is when adults are present to lay eggs in newly forming pods (larvae feed inside the pods later on).  Spraying primarily occurred prior to 10 to 20 per cent bloom, but likely could have been delayed until early pod formation and combined with foliar fungicides.  Fortunately, a new population of CSW did not move in during later flowering stages and notable CSW damage was not found.  

Because of the dry field conditions and lack of rain in the forecast, risk of white mould was very low during mid-bloom. Many farmers opted to skip the fungicide application, and white mould was not reported. 

Quality and yield
Somewhat surprisingly, there were no reports of brown or heated seed in this dry, warm season. Quality was good overall, and green seed was not reported. Crushers have indicated that oil content was higher than last year, but is not as high as the western crop. The harvested seed did not need to be dried; in fact some was as low as six to seven per cent moisture. 

Canola yields across Ontario were good for the most part. Many have stated the crop was better than expected and that yields were consistent and strong. However, average yields reported by Agricorp indicate that in general, yields in southern and eastern Ontario were lower than last year, and yields in northern and northeastern Ontario were higher than last year. The average yield for the province, based on acres under production insurance, is 2,095 lb/ac compared to 2,341 lb/ac in 2015. 

In Cochrane, Rainy River and Thunder Bay regions combined (2,411 ac), the average canola yield was 2,256 lb/ac. In Manitoulin, Sudbury and Temiskaming regions combined (3,594 ac), yields averaged 2,006 lb/ac which is higher than last year (approximately 1,900 lb/ac). Yields in Nipissing were strong at an average of 2,719 lb/ac. Harvest generally wrapped up in these areas during the last week of September. 

Average yields in Bruce (1,820 lb/ac), Grey (2,058 lb/ac) and Wellington (2,322 lb/ac) counties are lower than last year and canola acreage across these three counties was 8,572 ac compared to 7,775 ac in 2015. All other canola growing regions between Huron and York averaged around 2,200 lb/ac. The average yield across Kawartha Lakes, Northumberland, Peterborough and Prince Edward counties was just 1,289 lb/ac. From Lennox and Addington and Renfrew through to the easternmost counties, canola yields averaged 1,967 lb/ac. The majority of canola in the southern half of Ontario was harvested by the first week of September.  

Published in Canola
Unseasonably warm weather has given some Prairie farmers a second chance to finish a harvest that was delayed because of snow. Producers in Alberta and Saskatchewan are noting a big change from October, when fields were saturated and combines were halted across Saskatchewan and Alberta because of rain and snow. | READ MORE
Published in Harvesting
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