Field Crops
A research scientist at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in P.E.I is investigating natural ways to deal with pests that damage cabbage, canola and potatoes. 
Published in Insect Pests
Dry conditions across Ontario have amplified moisture stress, nutrient deficiency symptoms, insect feed and disease symptoms in soybeans, according to OMAFRA's latest field crop report. 
Published in Soybeans
A week of wild weather has provided moisture relief to many areas of the province, but strong winds and hail have damaged some fields. Overall, the condition of the majority of crops ranges from fair to excellent, according to Saskatchewan's Agriculture's weekly crop report
Published in Agronomy
Lawrence MacAulay, minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food, announced an investment of up to $6.3 million in funding to the Western Grains Foundation for a five-year Integrated Crop Agronomy cluster that will focus on agronomy research into multi-crop and integrated crop production.
Published in Corporate News
The majority of crops are progressing well, but the cycle of high humidity and dry conditions have resulted in worsening topsoil moisture conditions, reduced hay yields and increased sightings of root rot due to excess moisture, according to Saskatchewan Agriculture's weekly crop report

The majority of crops are in good condition and at their normal stages of development for this time of year. Twenty per cent of the spring cereals are in the heading stage, while 45 per cent of the canola and mustard and 44 per cent of the pulse crops are flowering.

Overall, topsoil moisture conditions have slightly worsened in the past week, due to the warmer temperatures and lack of moisture. Provincially, topsoil moisture conditions on cropland are rated as four per cent surplus, 62 per cent adequate, 29 per cent short and five per cent very short. Hay land and pasture topsoil moisture is rated as three per cent surplus, 52 per cent adequate, 32 per cent short and 13 per cent very short. Topsoil moisture remains in very short supply in many southwestern areas.

Haying continues, although there have been delays due to rain and high humidity. Hay yields so far are reported to be much lower than average and many pastures are expected to have significantly reduced carrying capacity heading into the summer. Pasture conditions are rated as six per cent excellent, 44 per cent good, 34 per cent fair, 13 per cent poor and three per cent very poor.

Producers are wrapping up in-crop herbicide applications in most areas and are applying fungicides when warranted. The majority of crop damage this past week was due to localized flooding, lack of moisture, strong winds and hail. Some crops are suffering from diseases such as root rot due to excess moisture. | READ MORE
Published in Agronomy
Across most of the Prairies, cereals grown in shortened crop rotations will continue to be vulnerable to Fusarium head blight (FHB) as a result of more severe FHB incidence in 2016, according to Alberta Agriculture and Forestry's update. 
Published in Diseases
Early season root rot has been reported in both soybeans and sunflowers, according to Manitoba Agriculture's Insect and Disease update. 
Published in Diseases
Armyworm has been spotted at low levels in winter wheat fields, increasing the need to scout for this pest in spring cereals and mixed forages.
Published in Insect Pests
In 2018, Canadian farmers reported seeding less land to canola and soybeans - crops that were both at record levels in 2017, according to the results of Statistics Canada’s June Field Crop Survey on seeded areas.
Published in Seeding/Planting
With high canola prices relative to other commodities, the temptation to run continuous canola is high. But does it really pay in the short term? A research study shows that net returns aren’t necessarily better, and that insect and disease pressures increase over time.
Published in Canola
Along with good agronomic practices, weather and growing conditions impact harvest seed yield and quality of annual field crops including canola. Although predicting growing season weather remains a challenge, a team of researchers wanted to know if it might be possible to predict canola quality prior to harvest by looking at growing season weather and environmental conditions during the crop year.
Published in Canola
One part BY 6060. Two parts CS 2000. Equal pinches of Nex 1022 and BY 6074. This fancy cocktail of canola hybrids just might perform better than planting only one of the hybrids in a field. Greg Stamp of Stamp Seeds in Enchant, Alta., ran demonstration trials in 2016 and 2017 to see if a blend of hybrids would perform better.  
Published in Canola
Green seed in canola is a downgrading factor that causes more than $150 million in losses annually. But researchers at the University of Calgary hope to help reduce those losses with the identification of a gene that helps the de-greening process.
Published in Canola
Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management continues to be a priority for farmers and researchers, with a large research focus on the effect of N management in the year of implementation. However, researchers also want to understand the longer-term implications of N fertilizer strategies and decisions in a cropping system.
Published in Canola
The impacts of clubroot on susceptible canola cultivars are usually pretty obvious – the plants look drought-stricken and have large, irregular swellings (galls) on their roots. But the pathogen itself has remained somewhat enigmatic. Now a team of researchers mostly from Western Canada, led by Hossein Borhan and in collaboration with scientists from England and Poland, has sequenced the clubroot genome. This work is generating insights into the pathogen and how it functions, and is providing a springboard for future advances in clubroot management.
Published in Agronomy
Across much of Ontario, major grain crops and forages are progressing well.

Crop reports by the OMAFRA field team are available online and posted as soon as possible.

Evidence of moisture stress was spotted on various crops, especially on light textured soils. However, rain came to relieve many crops over the weekend and again on June 27. Amounts of rainfall varied from zero to six inches, but even small amounts of rainfall can do an amazing job of feeding the crops. The burst of rainfall will help the crops as they battle the forecasted heat wave over the Canada day long weekend. 

It seems every year farmers are anxious over rainfall throughout the spring but especially at this important timing in many of our crops growth cycle. As farmers plant more acres further from home base, it’s important to know what the rainfall is doing across the area. If not already connected, be aware of the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS), Agricorp and various crop advisor weather network stations. They can be accessed through the various service deliverers and at these websites:
Corn
Corn in general is doing very well across most of the province. On lighter soils and to north and west where rainfall has continued to be low, some moisture stress symptoms have started to appear (“onion leafing”) as crop rows fill and water demands of the crop start to increase. There should be very rapid growth of corn height over the next week with the heat and moisture. This also marks the period of rapid nitrogen uptake by the corn crop. With the exception of some local areas which have received multiple heavy rainfall events, drier conditions suggest N losses this spring are likely low. While there are about 3 planting date windows for corn across the province based on the earlier spring weather and soil conditions, all are doing well. Early planted corn in some fields is chest high already and most of the crop will surpass knee high by the 1st of July.

Disease and insect pressure has been low. There have been reports of thrips in some of the drier areas giving concern to producers. Rain has helped most fields grow out of the infestations. No thresholds exist but control would only be warranted in fields where dry conditions remain, plants show signs of stress and thrips continue to infest even new leaves on the plants.

Soybeans
Soybeans have now started to flower except for late planted fields. Despite some areas getting more rainfall than needed creating concern over white mold, the high forecasted temperatures will prevent it from developing, as long as temperatures remain above 28˚C. Fungal sporulation is greatly reduced under hot temperatures regardless of the amount of moisture present. For fields with a history of severe white mould a two pass foliar fungicide strategy should be considered. The first application needs be made relatively early during the reproductive growth stages (before full flower) following by a second application 14 days later.

Soybean cyst nematode symptoms are showing in many parts of southwestern Ontario and will as well in central and Eastern Ontario over the next few weeks. Above ground plant symptoms include yellow patches, stunted plants (Figure 1) which could resemble herbicide, pH, fertility deficiencies, etc. Dig up plants (don’t pull) and examine roots for cysts (Figure 2).

Figure 1. Symptoms of SCN injury that may be confused with fertility or herbicide injury. posted as soon as possibleon the Field Crop News website at: http://fieldcropnews.com/category/crop-report/

Figure 2. The distinct SCN cysts observable on intact soybean roots (dig, don’t pull) posted as soon as possibleon the Field Crop News website at: http://fieldcropnews.com/category/crop-report/

Aphids have not been reported in any significant numbers although some have been found in the Milverton area, so scouting will now be necessary to monitor numbers. Fields should be monitored once the crop is in the R stages of soybeans and only require protection if soybean aphid thresholds are reached. See Field Crop News for more information (Soybean Aphid Thresholds).

Winter Wheat
Lots of variation in colour across the province since crop in the south west is maturing rapidly with harvest anticipated to start then as soon as the first week of July. The rain that was received was very important to grain fill and providing for maturity to occur as expected. Prior to the onset of recent rains, some crops on lighter soils did have potential yield impacting moisture stress which may be seen at in the combine.

The rains have brought on some disease but it is too close to harvest to apply any management control and the infestation level remains relatively low.

Significant acreage saw cereal leaf beetle but it appears there will be minimal impact on yield. .

The conditions are still dry despite recent rains. This means the potential for field fires is considered high. Everyone should be ensuring equipment is well maintained, clean, and being very observant. Keep looking behind; don’t get to the end of 1500-2000 ft. field and turn around to face a wall of fire. Rapid response to a field fire rapidly is key. Don’t park pickups and other vehicles with low clearance in the stubble.

Spring Cereals
The crop has struggled with the delayed planting and dry conditions during its early growth stages. There are reports of army worm (Essex County) so producers should be scouting their fields. There is still a window for control, but watch the days to harvest on pesticide labels.

There will likely be some added stress put on the spring cereal crop if it heads out in the next few days under the very high forecasted temperatures. Adequate soil moisture or rain from thunderstorms will help to mitigate this to some degree.

Canola
A lot of canola is planted in areas that are dry and the crop is stressed going into flowering. The more southern areas seem to have adequate moisture, but Bruce, Grey, Simcoe and further north are the areas to watch.

Edible Beans
The vast majority are planted. Planting done late May/early June are at about first trifoliate. More of the crop was planted later as producers waited for some moisture that didn’t come before they decided to seed. Much of the area has now received rainfall which has aided emergence.

Forages
The early harvested first cut has been quite slow to regrow because of the dry conditions. The recent rains and anticipated heat will see that growth rebound rapidly next week. Much of the non-dairy hay has now been harvested under decent conditions leading to satisfactory yields and good quality. Second cut on the early fields will likely happen this coming week.

Concerns for alfalfa weevil on the second crop for the most part did not develop. It’s expected that they are currently pupating and will likely be controlled by the next cutting.
Published in Agronomy
More crop conditions are rated in the good to excellent range in 2018 than in 2017, showing significant improvement from the previous year, according to the latest crop report.
Published in Agronomy
Cabbage seedpod weevils (CSW) are being found in spring canola, and the key to protecting your crop yield is to prevent adult CSW from laying eggs in newly formed pods.
Published in Insect Pests
Sulphur deposition in parts of southern Ontario have dropped 12.5 per cent since 1990 and there are more frequent incidents of sulphur deficiencies, according to the latest Ontario Field Crop Report. 

It is enouraged to watch for symptoms of sulphur deficiency in alfalfa specifically. For winter wheat, the most recent Ontario research suggests that 10 lbs of sulphur per acre is the optimal rate. However, this varies depending on location. In corn and soybeans, there have been isolated instances of sulphur deficiency to date, largely in light-textured soil. A number of on-farm trials are underway this season to evaluate response to sulphur on all three crops across a range of soils.

The latest crop report covers sulphur uptake, impact of soil type and guidelines for Ontario field crops, so producers can identify and manage fields that are most at risk of sulphur limitation. | READ MORE
Published in Agronomy
Highlights from Ontario Field Crop News' latest crop report include another discovery of stripe rust in the Clinton area and edible bean planting expected to complete within the week. Limited rainfall has been good for dry hay production. Corn progress is all over the place in varying stages. For soybeans, thin stands are being observed in many areas but soybeans can compensate. Temperature models suggest alfalfa weevil development is delayed, but alfalfa weevil can still pose a risk. 

Corn

Corn planting is essentially complete. Due to variability in rainfall and soil fitness this spring, there is a wide range of crop stages. Early planted corn is now past the V6 stage and approaching row closure in some fields, while late planted corn on heavier textured soils is in the emergence to early V stages. Side dressing continues in many areas. While stands look good overall, there have been some comments about non-uniformity now showing up in some fields where soil conditions may have been pushed at planting, particularly in areas which have remained dry. Corn replants, mostly due to excessive rainfall in 2018, are reported to be below normal. There have been reports of some fields with heavy weed pressure where weed control has been delayed due to high demand for other sprayer activities. Good weed control from emergence to 6 leaf stage is critical for protecting from yield loss in corn.

On June 6, OMAFRA completed its annual Pre-Sidedress Nitrogen Test (PSNT) sampling survey at its zero nitrogen trial locations. This survey assesses soil nitrogen status by measuring natural background nitrogen mineralized from the soil. Average soil nitrate results came back at 12.7 ppm. This is slightly above the long term (2011-2017) average of 11.7, suggesting nitrogen mineralization processes appear normal this spring. The full report and details on the nitrogen status in 2018 corn fields is available online. This survey serves as a general guide. Soil nitrate results are highly field specific, and growers are encouraged to sample their own fields before making any nitrogen decisions.

Soybeans

Most areas of the province have completed planting, though some still continues on very heavy soil textured areas such as Niagara. Due to variability in planting date, crop staging ranges from planted to early emergence for later planted field to 3nd trifoliate for early fields. Thin stands are being observed in many areas. Issues range from soil conditions at planting, heavy rains after seeding resulting in crusting, seed corn maggot feeding, root rots, or extremely dry conditions. Fortunately soybeans are able to compensate for thin stands within reason. Leaving a stand of 90,000 plants per acre on medium textured soils is usually more profitable than replanting. (110 000 plants per acre on heavy clays) For those fields with very poor stands replanting is still a viable option at this date. Feeding from Bean Leaf Beetle has been reported so monitoring is recommended.

Forages

A large amount of hay has been cut over the past two weeks. While most dairy hay is complete, some first cut continues this week. Limited rainfall has been conducive for dry hay production as well. Yields have been reported to be good. Quality has been good, with the only challenge reported to be early season grass growth staying ahead of alfalfa due to the cool start in April. Alfalfa weevil has been observed in many areas and scouting is encouraged after first cut this year. Temperature models suggest alfalfa weevil development may be delayed, and could still pose a risk to early regrowth. Control is warranted if there are two or more active larvae per crown, or 4–8 larvae per 30 cm by 30 cm (1 ft2).

Winter wheat

The winter wheat crop is progressing well; however, some wheat stands are variable and considerable discolouration is still evident. In the driest areas wheat is starting to flare up due to a lack of moisture. Fusarium Head Blight fungicides (T3) have been going on as wheat progresses through the anthesis stage. A number of acres in the far southwest of the province did not receive a T3 fungicide as warm temperatures moved the crop quickly through the ideal application window. Stripe rust was reported on June 5th in the St. Mary’s area on a susceptible variety. A second field has since been reported in the Clinton area. Disease levels continue to remain low and as temperatures continue to increase, stripe rust becomes less of a concern. If growers are still considering a late T3 fungicide application for stripe rust control, pre-harvest intervals must be considered.

Canola

Canola is progressing well, with earlier planted fields in southern and eastern canola growing regions now at green bud stage or bolting. In northern regions the crop is approaching full rosette and expected to start bolting in the next week or two. Flea beetle is being reported, though pressure is generally low. Flea beetle must feed on the seedlings to be exposed to seed treatment insecticides. Foliar insecticide application is not warranted until at least 25% foliar feeding is observed, and once the crop is at the 4 leaf stage it can likely outgrow the feeding damage. Swede midge is now being observed, although populations are reported to be relatively low. Swede midge pheromone traps should be in place and checked every few days through to bolting. With some early reports of Cabbage Seedpod weevil, monitoring is recommended.

Edible Beans

A large portion of edible bean acres have been planted, with many growers done or expecting to be done within the next week. Planting continues in some localized areas where rainfall had delayed field operations, or for shorter season beans such as Cranberry beans. Early reports suggest good stands in most cases, with the exception where seedbeds were overly dry. Lack of heavy rainfall events over the past two weeks has limited crusting and other rainfall related plant loss issues.
Published in Agronomy
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