Top Crop Manager

Features Agronomy Harvesting
Edible bean harvest delayed 10 to 14 days

Sept. 11, 2014, Ontario – Edible bean harvest is 10 to 14 days behind normal, according to Brian Hall in the latest Ontario field crop report from OMAF. 

Double cropping fall rye or winter triticale can provide excellent forage while also providing cover crop benefits, advises Joel Bagg. Farmers can plant fall rye following early-fall harvested crops, particularly corn silage. Forage rye harvested as haylage in mid-May can be followed by a later planted crop, such as soybeans, edible beans, or a warm-season annual forage such as sorghum. In dry years, decreased soil moisture following forage rye can negatively affect the yield of the following crop. It is essential to completely kill the rye with glyphosate or tillage to minimize shading and competition for moisture. Nitrogen applied in the spring at green-up will stimulate tillering and increase forage yield and protein. Timing of harvest is critical for both forage quality and timely planting of the following crop. Quality, palatability, and intake drop very quickly at the heading stage so the optimum harvest window is very narrow. Target the harvest of forage rye at the flag-leaf or early-boot stage for high nutrient quality. At the early-boot stage, crude protein (CP) can approach up to 18 per cent (depending on the amount of nitrogen applied), with neutral detergent fibre (NDF) under 50 per cent. At the head-emerged stage, CP drops to the 13 to 14 per cent range, while NDF increases to over 60 per cent.

Many fields are now beginning to yellow and mature, although long-season and later-planted fields are still at the R6 (full seed) growth stage, Horst Bohner reports. On average, fields are 10 to 14 days delayed. Yield potential ranges from average to fair but will depend on seed maturing normally. A number of fields in the province are still at the R5 (beginning seed) stage. Plants that have not reached full maturity can be impacted by an early frost. Studies indicate that soybeans are easily injured by frost until they reach physiological maturity which is attained at the R7 stage (one pod has changed to brown on main stem). Frost after physiological maturity generally does not damage soybean plants if pods remain intact. Prior to this stage, soybeans will be injured both for grain and seed purposes. Freezing during the green pod stage (R6) will result in damaged beans with a greenish "candied" appearance. Even moderately frosted beans with a greenish colour and slightly wrinkled seedcoat are considered as damaged and can be discounted if present in excess of three per cent for No. 2 Canada soybeans. The seed will eventually dry down with a wrinkled seedcoat and germination will be affected.

Edible beans
Very few edible beans have been harvested to date, according to Brian Hall. Harvest is 10 to 14 days behind normal. Pre-harvest herbicide applications have been delayed by wet weather, unfavourable forecasts and extreme variability in maturity within some fields. It cannot be overstressed the importance of applying the registered rate of pre-harvest herbicides, observing correct application timing, harvest interval and correct water volume to reduce the risk of product failure and to minimize the risk of pesticide residue. Timing of pre-harvest herbicide applications should be done according to the most immature areas of the field to avoid pesticide residue and seed quality issues. Spray coverage is important, particularly for the dry down of plant stems. Dry down of plants will be quicker when temperatures are warmer. Cool, cloudy weather will slow dry down. This may give the appearance that weeds are not adequately controlled.

Approximately 25 per cent of the crop is harvested to date, Hall reports. Yields have been mostly above average, ranging from 1.25 to 2 t/ac. Maturity is very uneven in many fields. In direct harvest situations, a pre-harvest herbicide can aid in dry down of canola and weeds reducing the risk of shelling. Optimum swath timing is 60 per cent of the seeds on the main stem starting to change colour. Green seed that does not squish when rolled between fingers is considered mature enough for swathing.

September 11, 2014  By Top Crop Manager


Stories continue below