Insect Pests
The number of bertha armyworm larvae on a farm last year is not a reliable indicator of what to expect this year. Bertha armyworm populations fluctuate widely from year to year.

Provincial monitoring programs raise awareness of potential outbreaks, based on number of adult moths caught in pheromone traps. Adult counts in June and July can indicate the risk of larvae feeding in July and August. Begin larval monitoring after peak flowering or about two weeks after peak trap catches. Continue scouting until either the mean number of larvae per square foot exceeds the economic threshold (at which point the crop is sprayed) or until the time remaining until the crop is swathed no longer allows for application of a registered insecticide based on the allowed pre-harvest interval.

Often bertha larvae aren't noticed until they move up the canopy and are easily visible during mid to late podding. At this point, chewing on the pods causes visible yield loss quickly. They will lower in canopy before that time, feeding on lower leaves. Assessing your crop early for telltale signs of leaf feeding and becoming aware of your forecast risk will give producers time to accurately assess and time an insecticide application, if needed.

Scouting tips
— Go out in early morning or late evening when larvae are mostly active.
— Mark out an area a quarter-metre square (50 cm by 50 cm) and beat the plants growing within that area to dislodge the larvae. Count the larvae that have fallen to the ground and multiply by 4 to get the number per metre square. Larvae will hide under leaf litter and in cracks, so check closely.
— Sample at least 5 locations (10-15 is recommended) a minimum of 50 metres apart. Do not sample headlands and areas within the crop that are not representative of the field. Use the average number of larvae at the sites surveyed to determine if the economic threshold has been exceeded.
— Scout each field. Adjacent fields may have very different larval densities, depending on how attractive the crop was when the moths were laying their eggs. Adjacent fields may also have different-sized larvae, depending on when the eggs were laid.
— For best results, apply an insecticide as soon as economic thresholds are reached. A single well-timed application of any registered insecticide is usually effective. Check provincial crop protection guides for registered insecticides.
— Apply insecticides early in the morning or late evening when the larvae are actively feeding. Do not apply during warm afternoons.

Click here to see a video of Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development's insect management specialist, Scott Meers, demonstrating how to scout for Bertha armyworm larvae in the field.
Globalization of the Arctic, emergence of invasive microbial pathogens, advances in genomic modification technology, and changing agricultural practices were judged to be among the 14 most significant issues potentially affecting how invasive species are studied and managed over the next two decades. | READ MORE
A Canola Agronomic Research Program (CARP) project on cutworms is now completed, resulting in "The Cutworm Booklet," which will help producers identify and control cutworm species, and give them a better understanding of the role of natural enemies in the control of the various cutworm species.
Set out a free smorgasbord and see who shows up. In the case of fababean, as acreage has risen, pea leaf weevil and lygus bug have been coming to dinner. For producers, the main concern with pea leaf weevil is feeding on nitrogen-fixing nodules, while for lygus bug, the economic impact is related to seed quality.
Cutworm management starts with identification – knowing what species is at work in your fields helps unlock information that improves cutworm scouting and management. Knowledge of cutworm biology, behaviour, preferred habitat, impacts of weather and interaction with its natural enemies will all improve scouting techniques and pest management decisions for growers.

The Cutworm Pests of Crop on the Canadian Prairies - Identification and Management Field Guide describes the economically important cutworm pests in detail and provides the information needed to manage them.
The first Prairie-wide risk and forecast maps are now available from the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network blog. They can be veiwed and downloaded here. Maps are generated for bertha armywork, grasshoppers, wheat midge, cabbage seedpod weevil, pea leaf weevil, wheat stem sawfly, diamondback moth as well as average temperature, average precipitation and modeled soil moisture for the Canadian Prairies. 
When the cereal leaf beetle (CLB) was first spotted in Alberta in 2005, the then-regulated pest was met with consternation by western Canadian producers. CLB can cause significant damage to all crops in the grass family, even forages, and yield losses in affected areas of the United States have reached 50 per cent.
A dry spring hindered crop growth and gave a leg up to early season insects like cutworms and flea beetles in some areas of the Prairies in 2016. Mid-season growing conditions favoured wheat midge.
For potato growers in Western Canada who are nervously watching the progress of potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli) moving in from the northwest United States, there’s good news: none of the potato psyllids found in Western Canada are carrying the zebra chip pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso). The Lso pathogen is transmitted by the potato psyllid, and zebra chip has caused severe damage in potatoes in the western United States, Mexico, Central America and New Zealand.
Soybean aphids have become well established throughout the northern Midwest United States and the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, causing significant damage in some years.

Because of the potential for ongoing problems from this yield robber in the future, there have been significant funding efforts from research programs: One management strategy has been to develop soybean varieties that are resistant to soybean aphids.

“The checkoff in Ohio as well as the North Central region states have put in a lot of investment in developing soybean plants that are resistant to the aphids, but now we have aphids that have overcome that resistance,” said Andy Michel, field crops entomologist at Ohio State University.

To address this challenge, researchers took on the extensive process of sequencing the entire soybean aphid genome to help develop strategies that prevent the spread and increase of aphids capable of breaking aphid resistance. Michel led the effort.

“My laboratory at Ohio State focuses on understanding how soybean aphids are able to overcome aphid resistance in soybean. Through this research, we hope to develop strategies that prevent the spread and increase of aphids capable of breaking aphid resistance. In the course of generating DNA sequences…we were able to sequence the entire soybean aphid genome,” he said. “We now have a really good roadmap for the soybean aphid and understanding all of the genes that are involved that make the aphid such a bad pest for soybean farmers in the north central region.”

The soybean aphid is now the fourth aphid species with a completely described genome and this new information will be a valuable tool moving forward with soybean aphid management. | READ MORE
“The pea leaf weevil has been a traditional pest for many years, and there is a lot of these pests in Canada,” says Gadi V.P. Reddy, entomologist of Montana State University’s Western Triangle Agricultural Research Center (WTARC). “The pea leaf weevil spread across the pulse growing regions in 2012, increasing problems caused by the pest.”

Reddy spoke at WTARC field days about his pheromone research project. Reddy has grant funding under the Montana Specialty Block Grant program, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Agriculture and USDA-National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), for the pea leaf weevil pheromone project to attract the pea leaf weevil.

There are two generations of pea leaf weevil per year, but the second generation of adults don’t cause damage like the first generation. During winter, the weevil hibernates under debris leaves and emerges in the spring, usually around May. When the pest emerges in spring, the adults feed on pollen and nectar on leaves; then they mate and the females lay eggs on the seedlings of peas and lentils that emerge as larvae. The larvae or grubs burrow deep in the soil and feed on roots and root nodules, causing damage. Plants fix less or no nitrogen when the roots are damaged, and sometimes the plant itself dies.

Reddy experimented using baited aggregation pheromone traps in the field to help monitor and mass trap weevil populations. He found that the pitfall traps worked the best at catching pea leaf weevils. These traps are a container that is sunk into the ground so that its rim is flush with the soil surface. Insects simply fall into the trap. Reddy used a liquid aggregation pheromone to lure them.

Another pheromone lure type is a bubble wrap, placed in pea or lentil fields.

In these traps, growers use a small quantity of soap or detergent water so that the trapped weevil gets killed.

“We found a lot of pea leaf weevils in our pheromone traps in 2016. Next summer, we will determine how many pheromone-baited traps we need per acre to trap the weevils,” Reddy says.

In addition, WTARC will be developing biodegradable pheromone lures so that growers won’t have to take them out of the field after each season.

Reddy is also looking at bio-based insecticides to control pea leaf weevils.
The wheat midge forecast for 2017 shows an overall lower level of wheat midge across Alberta. There has been a slight bounce back from the collapse of the extreme populations in the eastern Peace region. Although wheat midge has not followed the forecasts very well in the Peace region, it's important to note that there are likely sufficient populations of midge in the eastern Peace to fuel a resurgence if conditions are in the insects favor (specifically delayed crops and higher than normal rainfall).

Central Alberta has some areas of east of Edmonton with high numbers of wheat midge. The population has remained low in much of southern Alberta with the exception of some irrigated fields. Producers should pay attention to midge downgrading in their wheat samples and use this as a further indication of midge risk in their fields.

Over the past several years the field to field variation has been very considerable throughout the province, especially in those areas with higher counts. Individual fields throughout Alberta may still have economic levels of midge. Each producer also needs to assess their risk based on indicators specific to their farm. | READ MORE


A new study is helping Quebec researchers understand how to better control soybean aphid in the province.
Sometimes it’s a good thing to come second. Dry beans are the second choice for western bean cutworm moths looking for a place to lay their eggs. They prefer corn at the pre-tassel stage, but if they can’t find that, then they’ll go to dry bean fields. So far in Ontario, this invasive pest is causing the biggest problems in corn, but western bean cutworm has the potential to be a serious pest in dry beans, as Michigan growers have found.
Strip cropping is a method of cultivation in which a variety of crops are sown in alternating strips in a single field. It is a type of intercropping that involves planting crops in distinct rows that can be separately managed.
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