Agronomy
The key to controlling tufted vetch in soybeans is to try to maximize control in all crops in the rotation and in all kinds of windows. That’s the advice of Mike Cowbrough, weed management specialist with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA). He has been investigating options for tufted vetch control for about 14 years so he knows just how difficult this weed is to conquer.
Published in Weeds
It may be a while before robots and drones are as common as tractors and combine harvesters on farms, but the high-tech tools may soon play a major role in helping feed the world's rapidly growing population.

At the University of Georgia, a team of researchers is developing a robotic system of all-terrain rovers and unmanned aerial drones that can more quickly and accurately gather and analyze data on the physical characteristics of crops, including their growth patterns, stress tolerance and general health. This information is vital for scientists who are working to increase agricultural production in a time of rapid population growth.

While scientists can gather data on plant characteristics now, the process is expensive and painstakingly slow, as researchers must manually record data one plant at a time. But the team of robots developed by Li and his collaborators will one day allow researchers to compile data on entire fields of crops throughout the growing season.

The project addresses a major bottleneck that's holding up plant genetics research, said Andrew Paterson, a co-principal investigator. Paterson, a world leader in the mapping and sequencing of flowering-plant genomes, is a Regents Professor in UGA's College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and Franklin College of Arts and Sciences.

"The robots offer us not only the means to more efficiently do what we already do, but also the means to gain information that is presently beyond our reach," he said. "For example, by measuring plant height at weekly intervals instead of just once at the end of the season, we can learn about how different genotypes respond to specific environmental parameters, such as rainfall." | READ MORE
Published in Precision Ag
Soybean production has rapidly expanded in Manitoba in the past few years and there is increasing interest in Saskatchewan and Alberta. If you can successfully grow soybean, it is a great crop to include in your rotation and farm management program.
Published in Soybeans
Improving fertilizer use efficiency, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and carbon footprints, thereby improving sustainability is becoming increasingly important to the agriculture industry and its markets. For agriculture, nitrous oxide (N2O) is a very powerful GHG, so reducing losses and intensity not only improves the GHG footprint of cropping systems, but also benefits growers directly by improving economics and efficiency.
Pulse crops in rotation provide a range of ongoing benefits to subsequent crops, such as reducing fertilizer costs, providing a break in pest cycles and increasing yield. Estimating the nitrogen (N) benefits or credits to the system can be challenging, and researchers continue to improve methods that provide a more accurate assessment of N and carbon (C) in cropping systems.
Published in Pulses
Try this exercise. Take five $20 bills, scatter them on the ground, then light one on fire and watch it go up in smoke. That’s what researchers at Montana State University (MSU) found could happen if you broadcast urea fertilizer in the late fall or winter without incorporation. Previously, it was commonly thought that broadcast urea on cold soils would not result in very large urea losses.
Peter Johnson has a theory: if you don’t invest dollars in spring barley breeding, you won’t get the results you want.
Nitrogen inhibitors can dramatically improve productivity and injection is by far the best way to incorporate nitrogen into the soil while minimizing nitrogen loss.
Published in Fertilizer
Canadians can visit any farm or processing plant of their choosing from the comfort of their own home with the newly-launched FarmFood360° (FarmFood360.ca). The website uses 360° cameras and virtual reality technology to bring viewers a unique chance to tour real, working farms and food processing plants. The website is the latest version of the Virtual Farm Tours initiative (first launched in 2007), and features all of the original 23 farms plus three new virtual reality tours, including a dairy farm with a Voluntary Milking System, as well as two individual milk and cheese processing facilities.
Published in Corporate News
Researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences have received a $7 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, or ARPA-E, to design a low-cost, integrated system that can identify and screen for high-yielding, deeper-rooted crops.

The interdisciplinary team, led by Jonathan Lynch, distinguished professor of plant nutrition, will combine a suite of technologies designed to identify phenotypes and genes related to desirable root traits, with the goal of enhancing the breeding of crop varieties better adapted for nitrogen and water acquisition and carbon sequestration.

The project is part of ARPA-E's Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration, or ROOTS, program, which is aimed at developing crops that enable a 50 percent increase in carbon deposition depth and accumulation, while also reducing nitrous oxide emissions by 50 percent and increasing water productivity by 25 percent.

The ROOTS program website explains that while advances in technology have resulted in a tenfold increase in crop productivity over the past century, soil quality has declined, leading to a soil carbon debt equivalent to 65 parts per million of atmospheric carbon dioxide. This soil carbon debt increases the need for costly nitrogen fertilizer, which has become the primary source of emissions of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. The soil carbon debt also impacts crop water use, increasing susceptibility to drought stress, which threatens future productivity.

Given the scale of domestic and global agriculture, there is tremendous potential to reverse these trends by harnessing the photosynthetic bridge between atmospheric carbon, plants, microbes and soil. Advanced root systems that increase soil organic matter can improve soil structure, fertilizer use efficiency, water productivity, crop yield and climate resilience, while mitigating topsoil erosion – all of which provide near-term and sustained economic value. | READ MORE
Published in Corn
New genes – showing resistance to the yield-robbing blackleg in canola crops – have been identified in trials.

New South Wales (Australia) Department of Primary Industries senior principal research scientist, Harsh Raman, said the study has unlocked the genetic make-up of canola to characterize major and minor genes resistant to the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans, which causes blackleg disease.

“Finding new sources of resistance, particularly resistance which is controlled by minor genes, is extremely important to the canola industry,” Dr Raman said. “Blackleg disease can cause up to 80 per cent yield loss in canola - in Australia, France and Canada resistance has been broken down in some canola varieties due to the emergence of new races of the blackleg pathogen.” | READ MORE
Published in Diseases
Growers in Western Canada now have new options for controlling the most damaging diseases with the registration of Hornet fungicide and label updates for INTEGO Solo seed treatment from Nufarm Agriculture Inc.
Published in Fungicides
What would the late John Harapiak think of this: Nitrogen (N) losses with banded N that are greater than broadcast N. Harapiak championed deep banding N as a way to improve N-use efficiency and crop yield back in the late 1970s and 1980s, based on many years of research at Western Co-operative Fertilizers (later Westco), the former fertilizer arm of the three Wheat Pool grain companies. His “Fertilizer Forums” promoted the benefits of deep banding over broadcast N. However, new research is starting to show shallow banding less than two inches deep may incur some volatilization loss.
Kansas State University researchers recently announced a significant breakthrough in controlling the spread of the soybean cyst nematode, a parasitic roundworm that has caused anywhere from five to 100 per cent yield losses in Ontario.

Plant geneticist Harold Trick said the university has received a patent for the technology that “silences” specific genes in the nematode, causing it to die or, at the least, lose the ability to reproduce.

“We have created genetically engineered vectors [or DNA molecules], and put those into soybeans so that when the nematodes feed on the roots of the soybeans, they ingest these small molecules,” said Trick, who has worked closely with plant pathologist Tim Todd on this project.

So far, the scientists have found the technology has reduced the nematode population in greenhouse studies by as much as 85 percent. | READ MORE
Published in Diseases
Canada remains involved for the third-installment of the Global Youth Agriculture Summit, taking place October 9 to 13, 2017 in Brussels, Belgium. Four young leaders will represent Canada – two of which will be current members or alumni of 4-H Canada. About 100 young delegates from around the world will share ideas, develop solutions and engage in an open discussion on one of the world’s most challenging questions: How do we feed a hungry planet sustainably?
Published in Corporate News
A new study is helping Quebec researchers understand how to better control soybean aphid in the province.
Published in Insect Pests
Researchers at Oxford University and Rothamsted Research have developed a new plant application that harnesses the power of sucrose in wheat to produce more grains. A synthetic molecule solution is sprayed on plants, resulting in an increase in wheat grain size and yied of up to 20 per cent. There is also reason to believe the solution could help wheat plants recover from drought. |READ MORE
Published in Corporate News

Researchers at the University of Missouri have determined the mechanisms corn plants use to combat the western corn rootworm.

Published in Corn
Yield
2016 was a year of extremes for Ontario soybean growers. Incredibly dry conditions in some regions resulted in poor yields or total crop failures in the most extreme cases. In contrast, a dry spring with few diseases, followed by timely rainfall in August resulted in amazingly high yields in parts of southwestern Ontario. Soybean yields are notoriously difficult to predict before harvest so much of the industry was pleasantly surprised at these good yields considering the growing season. Field averages of over 70 bu/ac were reported and yield monitors pushed over 100 bu/ac in the best part of some fields. Current estimates have the provincial average for 2016 at 44.8 bu/ac (with 56 per cent of the reports in from insured growers). This is slightly above the 10 year average of 43.9 bu/ac for those growers. The five year average for the province is 46.6 bu/ac. Soybeans are by far the largest field crop grown in the province with 2.715 million acres seeded in 2016. This was the third largest soybean crop in history. 2014 was the largest at 3.06 million and 2015 had 2.90 million acres. 

Fertility
Higher yields result in greater nutrient removal. Although soybeans take up almost twice as much potassium (K) as phosphorus, both nutrients are essential for soybeans. Factors that limit root growth such as dry conditions and sidewall compaction will reduce uptake. Under dry conditions, roots are unable to take up K from the soil even if soil K levels are sufficient. A soil test is the only reliable way to know if a field is truly low in K or just showing stress-induced potash deficiencies. It’s also important to note that K deficiency symptoms may be an indication of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) feeding on the roots. When taking soil samples, ask the lab to also test for SCN. A spring or fall application with incorporation work equally well to feed soybeans if soil tests warrant fertilizer.

The micronutrient manganese (Mn) is also critical for soybeans. Large parts of Ontario’s main soybean growing areas are deficient in Mn. Symptoms of Mn deficiency is interveinal chlorosis (yellowing). One of the most significant factors affecting the availability of Mn is the soil pH. As soil pH increases, less Mn is available to the plant. Deficiencies may occur on eroded knolls where the pH is higher than the rest of the field. The deficiency is most common on poorly-drained soils, especially on clays and silt loams. High organic matter also ties up Mn. Since only small amounts of Mn are required by the plant, a foliar application of Mn works well to rectify the deficiency. In severe cases, a spray application can provide a five or more bu/ac yield response.

Seedcorn maggot
Seedcorn maggot was more of a problem this spring than usual. Seedcorn maggots feed on germinating corn and soybean seeds and young seedlings. Damage can range from minor feeding which delays emergence to seed death. Seedlings that do survive are often severely weakened and may not fully recover. Seedcorn maggot numbers are impossible to predict but a mild winter likely increased populations in the spring of 2016. Maggot feeding results in hallowed out seed with small dark channeling. Flies are attracted to the odour of decaying organic matter that has recently been incorporated, such as freshly tilled soils, decaying plant residue, lightly tilled cover crops, and manured fields. The eggs are laid in moist soil and once hatched begin to feed on germinating seeds. For growers that consistently experience seedcorn maggot damage, an insecticide seed treatment is the only reliable control option. It’s also important to note that treated seed may not give complete protection under extreme insect pressure so higher seeding rates should also be used.

Spider mites
In dry years, some pests proliferate quickly. Spider mite damage was widespread this August. Mites feed on individual plant cells from the underside of leaves leaving stipples. Severe stippling causes yellowing, curling and bronzing of leaves. Spider mites usually start on the edge of the field but wind can carry them to any part of the field. From the road these pockets may look like moisture stress. Fields that are close to neighboring winter wheat stubble, hay fields and no-till fields are more at risk. Foliar insecticide applications were necessary on significant aces this year.

Double cropped soybeans
A number of growers were able to achieve 35 to 40 bu/ac this year, when seeding after winter wheat harvest. One of the reasons double copping is becoming more successful now than 20 years ago is due to higher yielding short season varieties. Plant breeding efforts for northern climates, especially western Canada have resulted in better short season varieties that can be seeded later in the growing season.  Fields planted after July 15th or fields that remained extremely dry throughout the growing season were generally not successful. 

Variety selection
Soybean variety selection continues to be one of the most important management decisions a grower can make to achieve high yield. The Ontario Soybean and Canola committee conducts performance trials each year across the province. Results from these trials can be found at gosoy.ca. Within a single test yield differences of over 10 bu/ac between varieties are not uncommon. Longer maturing varieties yield significantly more than shorter maturing varieties in most regions. Generally, longer maturing varieties yield 0.4 to 1.0 bu/ac more for each day they take longer to mature in the fall. For fields not intended for winter wheat seeding selecting a longer season variety is a cost effective way to increase yields.
Published in Soybeans
Andrew and Jennifer Lovell of Keswick Ridge, N.B. and Dominic Drapeau and Célia Neault of Ste-Françoise-de-Lotbinière, Que. have been named Canada’s Outstanding Young Farmers for 2016. The two farm families were chosen from seven regional farm couples across Canada between the ages of 18 and 39 at Outstanding Young Farmer’s (OYF) national event last week in Niagara Falls, Ont.

“It was extremely difficult for the judges to make their decision, but ultimately our winners stood out for their state-of-the art thinking and commitment to the future of Canadian agriculture,” says OYF President Luanne Lynn.

Although the Lovell’s didn’t grow up on a farm, four years ago they purchased River View Orchards (with roots tracing back to 1784), and created a diversified u-pick farm market operation. Although they suffered $100,000 in damage in 2014, they adapted their plans until they were able to begin full production again. Fence and trellis construction services and building attractions brought over 1,400 visitors to their farm.

Drapeau and Neault are third-generation dairy and field crop farmers. When Drapeau was 16, he was performing artificial insemination on cows and developed his management skills by taking over the herd and feeding responsibilities. In the barn, Drapeau and Neault use genomic testing on young animals, motion detectors for reproduction, a smart scale on the mixer-feeder and temperature probes close to calving. In the fields, the farm uses a satellite navigation system for levelling, draining, seeding, fertilizing and spraying. With these technological innovations over the last four years, they have enabled the farm to increase overall yields by five to 10 per cent each year.

For more information on Canada’s Outstanding Young Farmer’s program, visit www.oyfcanada.com


Published in Corporate News
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