Insecticides

Jul. 3, 2012 - Nanotechnology has developed tremendously in the past decade and was able to create many new materials with a vast range of potential applications. Some of those innovative materials are promising to reduce environmental pollution. For instance, carbon nanotubes and metal nano-particles are great candidate materials for cleaning polluted water and soils.

However, the risk that nano-particles may pose to human and environment health is not yet fully understood. The precautionary principle therefore suggests keeping environmental release of nano-particles minimal until their fate and toxicity is better understood. "A good understanding of nano-materials is essential to evaluate whether the benefits overcome potential new risks", explains Thilo Hofmann, dean elected at the Faculty of Geosciences, Geography and Astronomy of the University of Vienna.

The results were published June 6th in the internationally recognised journal "Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology". The study presents the current scientific state of art on nano-pesticides and identifies direction priorities for future research.

Among numerous proposed applications, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize agricultural practices and food systems. Research has been extremely active over the past few years to develop new pesticides products based on nanotechnology. "Nano-pesticide research is emerging at high speed at the agrochemical labs, however, this topic has not reached public awareness or state authorities so far, nor are any products available at the marked. Since those nano-pesticides have new or enhanced properties, this will change in near future and will inevitably result in both new risks and new benefits to human and environmental health", states Thilo Hofmann.

Nano-pesticides encompass a great variety of products, some of which are already on the market. The application of nano-pesticides would be the only intentional diffuse input of large quantities of engineered nano-particles into the environment. Innovation always results in both drawbacks and benefits for human and environmental health. Nano-pesticides may reduce environmental contamination through the reduction in pesticide application rates and reduced losses. However, nano-pesticides may also create new kinds of contamination of soils and waterways due to enhanced transport, longer persistence and higher toxicity.

The current level of knowledge does not allow a fair assessment of the advantages and disadvantages that will result from the use of nano-pesticides. As a prerequisite for such assessment, a better understanding of the fate and effect of nano-pesticides after their application is required. The suitability of current regulations should also be analyzed so that refinements can be implemented if needed. Research on nano-pesticides is therefore a priority for preserving the quality of both the food chain and the environment.

For more information, please see: "Nano-pesticides: state of knowledge, environmental fate and exposure modeling" online at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10643389.2012.671750

Mar. 1, 2012, Raleigh, NC - New Paradigm insecticide, manufactured by MANA Crop Protection, has received approval by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for its new state-of-the-art formulation of lambda-cyhalothrin for broad-spectrum insect control in corn, soybeans and other crops.

Using MANA Crop Protection proprietary technology, new Paradigm touts an advanced formulation which allows fast-acting insect knockdown with the same high levels of control found in emusifiable concentrate (EC) lambda-cyhalothrin based products. It also has exceptionally low odor and favorable PPE requirements with a “Caution” signal word.Delivering uncompromised performance in insect control and unequaled ease of use, the new formulation of Paradigm has very low odor, which improves worker handling, convenience and safety when compared to other lambda-cyhalothrin delivery platforms.

“MANA Crop Protection brings Paradigm to the market as the premier alternative to current insect control offerings,” says Keith Miller, fungicide and insecticide product manager. “Using advanced technology, this product demonstrates extremely low odor in the jug, spray tank and the field during and after application. Plus, its ‘Caution’ signal word sets the bar higher than that of other insecticides in the same class, which continue to have more restrictive signal words on their labels.”

Older formulations of lambda-cyhalothrin products can cause negative impact to handlers who may have skin sensitization and/or a physical response to offensive odor. “Paradigm performs at a level which is expected of EC type formulations due to its novel non-water or microcap based formulation, yet it meets the vigorous requirements of being a low VOC (volatile organic carbon) product,” he adds.

Improved performance        

Paradigm’s advanced-generation pyrethroid chemistry combines contact and ingestion activity for greater control of armyworms, cutworms, loopers, beetles and aphids. Beyond corn and soybeans, it is registered for use on 50 other crops including cotton, peanuts, rice, tomatoes and wheat.

In 2011 studies completed by an independent third-party researcher, Paradigm demonstrated faster-acting performance along with improved efficacy when compared to Warrior with Zeon Technology.

Environmental focus

“The bottom line for any insecticide is performance, and Paradigm came through field and laboratory testing with flying colors,” Miller says. “Beyond performance, however, growers are demanding safer handling and environmental characteristics from inputs to better support stewardship while lessening risk to workers and handlers.”Going the extra mile in research and development for Paradigm’s launch in U.S. crop markets, MANA Crop Protection outlines the product’s cutting-edge environmental and worker safety qualities:
 
·         Signal word. Paradigm is the first insecticide in its class to carry the CAUTION signal word. This enables handlers to wear less-restrictive and cumbersome personal protective equipment.
·         Dermal irritation class. Because Paradigm is classified as non-irritant, the risk of skin sensitization for handlers is reduced.
·         Odor. The very low odor formulation minimizes annoyance to applicators and field neighbors.
·         Low Volatile Organic Compound. Because Paradigm exceeds tough anticipated VOC standards, growers have the flexibility to use it where they want, without compromising performance.
 
For optimized control when needed most, Paradigm offers extensive application flexibility. Foliar applications on soybeans will control soybean aphids, cutworms, grasshoppers, lygus bugs, stink bugs and most other harmful insects. Corn growers can apply Paradigm at planting to target cutworms and wireworms. Foliar applications on corn will control rootworms, armyworms, corn borers, stinkbugs, aphids, flea beetles and most other destructive pests.

Aggressive development plan

The introduction of Paradigm underscores the commitment by MANA Crop Protection in developing crop inputs that are not only highly efficacious but aligned in improved safety for farm workers, air quality and environmental sustainability and stewardship. In the immediate, the company has an aggressive plan to add eight new formulations to its U.S. crop protection portfolio by the end of 2013.

“Not so long ago, growers were concerned primarily with finding products that effectively controlled insects, weeds or diseases,” Miller says. “Today, they have to balance a number of requirements into their selection process like environmental regulations, good stewardship and resistance management.

“MANA Crop Protection is helping redefine what growers can expect from crop protection manufacturers. By taking care of many of these challenges through improved formulations, growers can focus on what they do best, which is producing high-yielding, high-quality crops.”

MANA Crop Protection is a world leader in crop protection solutions. With more than six decades of field-proven experience and an impeccable reputation for quality, value, attentive service and environmental responsibility, the company has successfully grown its enterprise into a global powerhouse offering one of the most complete portfolios of crop protection products.

To learn more about Paradigm insecticide, go to the MANA Crop Protection website at www.manainc.com or call 866-406-6262.

About MANA Crop Protection

MANA offers the most comprehensive and diversified product portfolio in the crop protection industry, with more than 60 formulations of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, and harvest aids. These proven products are efficiently manufactured to the highest standards and value priced to optimize the farm’s profitability potential. As the North American arm of the world’s seventh largest agrochemical company, MANA provides best-in-class formulations, regulatory capabilities, field research, and a science-based approach to defend and maintain vital active ingredients that other companies have abandoned. Our area business management team throughout the U.S. supports the distributors, retailers, crop consultants and agronomists who are part of the supply chain that farmers and farm managers rely on for localized expertise. MANA is a North American wholly owned affiliate of Makhteshim-Agan Industries, Ltd (MAI). Additional information about MANA can be found online at www.manainc.com.
 
About Makhteshim Agan

Makhteshim-Agan Industries Ltd helps farmers around the world to increase the yield of their crops through the production and distribution of crop protection solutions. In 2010, its sales reached USD 2.368 billion and it was ranked seventh in the global agrochemical industry and fourth in Europe, with a global market share of more than 5 percent. The Company is known for its extensive knowledge and experience, outstanding technological and engineering abilities, expertise in product registration, compliance with stringent environmental protection standards, strict quality control, and global marketing and distribution channels.

Mar. 1, 2012, Raleigh, NC - New Paradigm insecticide, manufactured by MANA Crop Protection, has received approval by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for its new state-of-the-art formulation of lambda-cyhalothrin for broad-spectrum insect control in corn, soybeans and other crops.

Jan. 5, 2012, Chatham, ON - Pioneer Hi-Bred, a DuPont business, has received Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) approval of Optimum AcreMax XTreme insect protection, which integrates all of a corn grower’s above- and below-ground insect control and refuge needs in a single bag. Optimum AcreMax XTreme products will be introduced into the Canadian market in the 2013 planting season.

“Pioneer brand seed corn is planted on twice as many acres than any other brand in Canada. With Optimum AcreMax XTreme products we are expanding upon our leadership position in the corn market,” says Ian Grant, president and business director of Pioneer Hi-Bred Ltd. “Optimum AcreMax XTreme products incorporate above-and below-ground insect protection with required refuge, maximizing productivity and yields for corn growers with these needs.”

Optimum AcreMax XTreme products integrate 95 percent of a trusted Pioneer brand corn hybrid containing Herculex XTRA (HXX) insect protection pyramided with YieldGard Corn Borer (YGCB) insect protection and the AgriSure® RW (ASRW) trait and 5 percent of a similar non-Bt hybrid with herbicide tolerance to serve as the integrated refuge.  All Optimum AcreMax XTreme products offer built-in glyphosate and Liberty herbicide resistance.

This season, Pioneer will strategically plant Optimum AcreMax XTreme product research trials across a wide geographic region so that farmers can assess product performance firsthand and in advance of the 2013 growing season.

Optimum AcreMax XTreme products will be offered in addition to the already available single-bag Optimum AcreMax above-ground insect protection and refuge product line. Pioneer launched a wide-scale of maturities of Optimum AcreMax products for the 2012 planting season covering most of the corn-growing regions across Eastern Canada.

Growers who plant Optimum AcreMax and Optimum AcreMax XTreme products will be in compliance with refuge requirements as set forth by the CFIA.

Registration documents for Optimum AcreMax XTreme products are currently under review at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Pioneer anticipates a decision regarding Optimum AcreMax XTreme products from the U.S. EPA in time for 2013 spring planting.

About Pioneer

Established in 1946, Pioneer Hi-Bred Limited is Canada’s premier seed company and a wholly owned subsidiary of Pioneer Hi-Bred, a DuPont business. Pioneer Hi-Bred International (www.pioneer.com), headquartered in Des Moines, Iowa, is the world’s leading developer and supplier of advanced plant genetics, providing high-quality seeds to farmers in more than 90 countries. Pioneer provides agronomic support and services to help increase farmer productivity and profitability and strives to develop sustainable agricultural systems for people everywhere. Science with Service Delivering Success.

About DuPont

DuPont has been bringing world-class science and engineering to the global marketplace in the form of innovative products, materials, and services since 1802.  The company believes that by collaborating with customers, governments, NGOs, and thought leaders we can help find solutions to such global challenges as providing enough healthy food for people everywhere, decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and protecting life and the environment.  For additional information about DuPont and its commitment to inclusive innovation, please visit www.dupont.com.

Dec. 13, 2011 -Weed resistance is a growing issue in the US Midwest, and in fact, has reached the crisis stage to one researcher. Dr. Larry Steckel, University of Tennessee researcher, hosted an interactive session during the American Seed Trade Association (ASTA) Seed Expo in Chicago, and noted that there is no new herbicide mode action on the horizon.    READ MORE

Nov. 18, 2011 -It may not be crop-related, but for growers with a livestock operation on their farm, news of a report that non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in food animals is causing antibiotic resistance is cause for concern. Resistance not only adds to the cost of raising livestock, but the report states it can be transmitted to humans, as well.     READ MORE

Within the agricultural sector, research and industry often collaborate to bring new crop varieties to market. What occurs infrequently, however, are third party researchers working together with crop protection companies on the development of new active ingredients.

Grasshopper infestations in the last two years had growers scrambling for insecticides, and 2003 is shaping up to be another banner year for hopper populations.

In 2002, Syngenta's Matador was among the most used pyrethroids in Canada: yet one of the most common complaints investigated by Syngenta field personnel was that 'it just didn't work'. Turns out, most of those situations had one common denominator: the product was applied in temperatures that were too hot for it to work effectively.

Hoppers can break chemicals down more quickly as temperature rises.

“There are two key issues for success when using Matador,” says Ed Thiessen, technical crop manager for Syngenta Crop Protection Canada in Calgary. “Temperature at time of application, and the size of the hoppers.”

Matador is a fast-acting stomach and contact insecticide that works by using the insect's own metabolic system. Hoppers need to eat a Matador-coated leaf, or just be hit by the spray. And that is the key: metabolism. “The body temperature of a hopper is the same as the environment, unlike human body temperature which remains constant,” explains Thiessen. “As the temperature rises, the hoppers' metabolism increases and they can break the chemical down in their systems more quickly. Spray at 32 degrees Celsius and you'll knock them down, but a few hours later they'll be back up and chewing.”

Optimum application temperature for Matador ranges up to the mid-20 degrees Celsius. But once the thermometer climbs above 25 degrees Celsius, you need to wait for cooler weather. It can be hard to exercise caution while hordes of hoppers harvest your profit, but Thiessen says it is worth it to hang onto your hat and wait.

“Try to spray as early in the day as possible, or in the late evening,” he says. “The late evening is really the best as the lower temperatures throughout the night will allow more efficient action of the product.”

The label tells all
All of this information is spelled out on the label, but it can be hard for people to take label cautions seriously when they are under pressure. Still, following label instructions is not just about getting the most out of the product, says Thiessen, it is also about getting the most from your pesticide dollars.

“Sometimes, growers don't read labels until they've applied the product and have not achieved the results they expected,” says Thiessen. “Considering the amount of money being invested, you're best to read before you spray. Application temperature is critical, and so is the stage of development of the hoppers. All pyrethroid insecticides, like Matador, work best on the small green guys, so if you can't hit them when they're young and green, you are better off to use a different insecticide with a different mode of action.”

But what if you want to apply Matador aerially? And what if the plane arrives after the temperature has soared above 25 degrees Celsius? What then?

“In that case you're best to make a product change,” says Thiessen. “An aerial applicator should be prepared to offer options, but you need to know your products. The best source of information is often the companies themselves. They all offer help lines during the spraying season so you can get advice right from your field.”

Bottom line for insect control? Know your product, and follow the rules, especially when the heat is on. -30-

 

New research in Alberta has confirmed that lygus bug monitoring and control at canola's early pod-ripening stage is the best time to protect yield and avoid economic loss from lygus. And just as important, it shows that control prior to this stage could reduce yield.

Monitoring for lygus bugs is easier at the early pod stage.

“The early pod stage is when the older juveniles and adults are feeding on the seeds in the upper plant canopy where they can be sampled, so this is the optimal time to get an accurate measure of the risk and determine the need to spray insecticides,” says Héctor Cárcamo, an entomologist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) at Lethbridge. “Lygus numbers from surveying at earlier stages can be misleading and spraying at earlier stages does a poorer job of protecting yield, unless other insect pests warrant it, for example the cabbage seedpod weevil in southern Alberta.”

Earlier lygus bug feeding can actually help yield potential
Cárcamo, along with fellow researcher Jennifer Otani at AAFC Beaverlodge and entomologist Jim Jones with Western Pest Management Company of Sherwood Park, Alberta, found that lygus bug feeding activity during the early growth stages can actually help the plant stimulate yield production relative to plants not exposed to lygus bugs at this stage.

The researchers looked at plant growth habits, seed yield and other vegetative and reproductive attributes. The density and duration of lygus bug infestation during the bud through bloom period were manipulated in separate experiments.

They found that canola plants can compensate for lygus bug damage during the early flowering stages. As a result of feeding at this stage and the stimulated branches and pod production, the plant is able to compensate for damage inflicted during the bud to early flower stages.

“Even adding very large numbers such as 10 bugs per plant, between the bud to early flower stages, didn't cause any yield losses,” explains Cárcamo.

A study from 1999 through 2001 at Lethbridge also found that one insecticide application at the correct stage was most effective. Cárcamo found that there was no yield advantage of multiple sprays at bolting, flower and pod stages, nor single sprays at bolting or flowering — compared to a single application at the early pod stage.

Similar results were found in the Peace River region during the same time period by researcher Otani. A single spray at the early pod stage provided comparable yield as spraying multiple times. However, in 2001, yield was similar in Beaverlodge and Dawson Creek in plots treated with a single insecticide application at the bud stage and the early pod stage.

Although the results from a single year of this three year study point to an alternate spraying time for producers in the Peace River region, the bud stage was not the most reliable stage to implement chemical control to protect yield from lygus bugs, says Otani. Over the three years of 1999, 2000 and 2001 when this study was performed in Beaverlodge and Dawson Creek, the highest yield of all treatments compared was consistently observed in plots sprayed with insecticide at the early pod stage.

Table 1. Economic thresholds for lygus bugs in canola (number of adults and older nymphs per 10 sweeps).
Application costs
Canola crop stage*
$/acre
Bud
Early pod (5.1)
Mid pod (5.2)
$8.9
No economic threshold needed
14
12
10
20
17
15
$9.7
16
13
11
22
18
16
$10.5
17
14
12
24
20
17
$11.35
18
15
13
25
22
19
$12.15
19
16
14
27
23
20
$12.95
21
17
15
29
25
21
Canola price
$/tonne
-
$220
$260
$300
$220
$260
$300
$/bushel
-
$5.00
$5.90
$6.80
$5.00
$5.90
$6.80
*Crop stages:
5.1 = Lower pod in the main stem with seeds full size and translucent
5.2 = Seeds in lower pods turning green (Harper and Berkenkamp 1975)

“These results confirm that the economic threshold for lygus bugs in canola, developed by Ian Wise and Robert Lamb in 1998 in Manitoba, hold true for the shorter growing season where there is one generation of lygus bugs. That occurs in the unique Peace River region of Canada,” explains Otani.

Table 2. Canola growth stages
Stage Description of main raceme
0
Pre-emergence
0
Seedling
2
Rosette
2.1 First true leaf expanded
2.2 Second true leaf expanded
2.3 etc. for each additional leaf
3
Bud
3.1 Flower cluster visible at centre of roestte
3.2 Flower cluster raised above level of rosette
3.3 Lower buds yellowing
4
Flower
4.1 First flower open
4.2 Many flowers opened, lower pods elongating
4.3 Lower pods starting to fill
4.4 Flowering complete, seed enlarging in lower pods
5
Ripening
5.1 Seeds in lower pods full size, translucent
5.2 Seeds in lower pods green
5.3 Seeds in lower pods green-brown or green-yellow, mottled
5.4 Seeds in lower pods yellow or brown
5.5 Seeds in all pods brown, plant dead
Canola Council of Canada. Canola Production Manual.

Economic thresholds reflect research
Current recommendations by provincial agriculture departments are based on work conducted in Manitoba. Jay Byer, a cereal and oilseed specialist with Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, says the recommendations still stick and that the new lygus bug research confirms the treatment timing and economic thresholds.

Monitoring of lygus bugs is also easier at the early pod stage, which typically happens from mid to late July on the southern prairies. Sampling at earlier stages can be ineffective in predicting yield losses in canola, partly because many of the lygus bugs reside lower in the canopy where they are not captured by sweep nets.

Integrated approach beneficial
The research shows the danger in a 'scorched earth policy' when it comes to insect control. Cárcamo says the general bias is to have a field free of harmful insects when having a few insects can be beneficial. But sometimes the environment is better if there are a few insects around. “This is typical of the type of interaction we're exploring in other entomology work,” he says. Other integrated pest management work that Cárcamo and Otani are working on include the effect of cutting alfalfa on lygus bug in canola and the overwintering biology of lygus bug. Researchers have also identified regional differences in the number of generations that occur, with two to three generations of lygus bug occurring per year in the southern prairies and one generation in the north.

In addition, potential biocontrol options are being investigated as part of a major research project that involves several research centres across the country and the international biocontrol institute, CABI-Bioscience. -30-

 

An insecticide developed in Israel and introduced in the US for control of insects in cotton and pome fruit, has caught the attention of potato researchers in Canada. Rimon 10EC was tested at the University of Guelph in 2002 and proved itself highly effective against Colorado potato beetle infestations. What has researchers so excited is that the new chemistry of Rimon 10EC offers an opportunity for effective integrated pest management.

Rimon 10EC is a growth regulator with a new active ingredient called Novaluron. It works by inhibiting chitin formation at the larval stage of the insect; chitin is a principle part of the insect exoskeleton. In the University of Guelph trials, the product showed almost 100 percent control at the third and fourth instar stage of insect development, or at the stage responsible for more than 50 percent of all CPB damage.

The challenge growers may face, suggest researchers and distributors of Rimon 10EC, is that it is not applied in the same manner as other CPB insecticides. “Rimon does take time to work,” explains Rob Dupree of Crompton Corporation, the company seeking registration in Canada. “Because it is a growth regulator, it may take a couple weeks before results are seen in the field. Growers may need to adopt a different style of management when using Rimon. They may have to sample for egg masses earlier and get ready to apply rather than looking for thresholds at the larval stage.”

In the US, Rimon 10EC registration and research is being managed by Rob Everich, a senior scientist with Makhteshim-Agan of North America (MANA). “Rimon 10EC is a unique and very specific type of insecticide that only affects the insect at specific growth stages,” he says. “This makes it safe for humans and non-target organisms, such as fish and birds. Adult stages of beneficial insects will not be affected. We already have the product registered in the US as a 'reduced risk pesticide' for use on 'ornamentals' and we have achieved 'fast-track' registration status in the US for use on apples, pears, cotton and potatoes. Growers in South Africa, South America and Eastern Europe already use Rimon for CPB control and it has been very successful.”

According to Dupree, research is still being conducted to determine the economic threshold and best timing of application for Rimon 10EC. “So far, it looks like a good product,” he says. “It's comparable to other Colorado potato beetle products and may be better.”

Everich suggests that timing of application is critical in order to get the best control of CPB using Rimon. “Because of the mode of action of novaluron, we need to target early instar larvae or even eggs,” he says. “Our US research has shown that early season applications are most effective. In any generation, the target is early instar larvae and certainly not adults or large immatures. By using novaluron early in the CPB generation cycle, growers can and should rotate to other classes of chemistry later on.

“In terms of beetles developing resistance to other products, Rimon is another tool growers can use in insecticide rotation, especially since this will be the only insecticide in its class registered for CPB control,” continues Everich. “We expect it to be competitively priced, but it will be more expensive than some of the older products.”

While application for registration of Rimon has been made in Canada, there is no definitive indication when it will be available. If the present registration application is accepted, growers could have Rimon 10EC for the 2005 season.

Meanwhile, more research is being planned to determine economic thresholds and dosage levels. There is also some expectation that Rimon will be tested in some field trials in 2003.

Knowing there is another product for effective control of CPB in the works may frustrate growers who need it now. However, learning about it before using it also gives growers time to consider how this product, requiring a different style of application, can fit into their operation. Researchers believe that Rimon 10EC is so promising that if Colorado potato beetles could read, they should be justifiably nervous. -30-

Research completed two years ago in New Brunswick proved that Colorado potato beetles (CPB) are no match for the two-spotted stink bug (Perillus bioculatus). Entomologists in North America successfully showed that two-spotted stink bugs will clear a potato field of CPB larvae when applied in large numbers. Unfortunately, commercialization of the idea and mass production of stink bugs has never happened.

A two-spotted stink bug attacks a Colorado potato beetle larva.

Dr. Gilles Boiteau, an entomologist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada at the Potato Research Centre in Fredericton, New Brunswick, tested the idea to ensure stink bugs would enjoy the CPB in his province with the same fervour they have everywhere else. They did.

“We did what we call an 'inundative release' of two-spotted stink bugs,” Boiteau explains. “In the past, research revolved around introducing the predator to the field, but it was not always successful. We found the inundative release worked really well.” The bugs are applied to the field in the same way as an insecticide when the CPB larvae are beginning to hatch.

Work completed at Laval University determined that five or six stink bugs per plant will provide control of CPB. “That's a lot of stink bugs per hectare,” Boiteau comments.

“We did two years of releases on fairly large plots and growers were impressed by the results,” continues Boiteau. “You could see the stink bugs eating the larvae.” The two-spotted species of stink bug is mostly interested in Colorado potato beetles so it poses no threat to other insects and it will not leave the field until every larva is consumed.

The downside to controlling CPB this way is that it is not available commercially. Boiteau says he obtained the stink bugs he used from the USDA BioControl Laboratory in Texas, but it is no longer doing the work. So, until a company comes forward to set up a rearing facility for stink bugs and provide them commercially, potato growers cannot use this highly effective bio-control.

“The cost and supply problem needs to be addressed,” admits Boiteau. “We know it's effective, but it is technology that will sit on the shelf until we find investors to take it forward.” He suggests using stink bugs would fit well in any integrated pest management strategy. Growers could use insecticide to control CPB in years when infestations are heavy and use stink bugs or other bio-control in years when there are light infestations of the beetles.

The cost of stink bug control is not known because commercial development has not been completed. “The cost would likely be more expensive, but within range of insecticide,” Boiteau speculates. “This is a product that is free of chemical residue and that in itself is worth something. There is a place for this technology if we choose to pursue it.”

Despite the promise of effective CPB control with inundative release of stink bugs, the beetles can relax because there aren't any stink bugs available commercially to cause them harm. -30-

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