Soil
Brenda Shanahan, Member of Parliament for Châteauguay—Lacolle, on behalf of Minister of Agriculture and Agri Food Lawrence MacAulay, has announced a repayable contribution of $470,000 to help a Quebec company, Logiag Inc., commercialize a laser-based soil analysis system that replaces the more traditional chemical analyses.

This funding will allow the company to introduce to the market laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), a technology that allows for faster and more accurate data at lower cost. The goal is to provide producers with the exact amount of fertilizer needed and thereby avoid the overuse of chemicals.

The technology was developed by Logiag in 2015, in collaboration with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the support of its Industrial Research Assistance Program. This investment from the AgriInnovation program, a $698-million initiative under the policy framework, will help Logiag create 45 jobs over five years.
Soil microbes provide billions and billions of teeny helping hands to your crops. Those helping hands are key to sustainable, profitable crop production. Crop growers can choose practices that promote healthy soil microbial communities, and researchers like Bobbi Helgason are developing ways to further enhance agriculture’s ability to tap into the remarkable capacity contained in soil microbial life.
Conducting regular soil tests is one of the simplest, fastest and least expensive ways to optimize one’s fertilizer program and maximize crop yield. Yet many producers still underuse this vital tool.
Members of the Canadian 4R Research Network gathered in Ottawa on Dec. 1 to share important agronomic data that may assist the federal government in meeting sustainable development goals and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.

Researchers at the University of Guelph are looking at the connection between soil biodiversity and soil health using new research, along with data collected from a long-term cover crop trial dating back to 2008.

“We are looking specifically at soil health,” explains research lead Kari Dunfield, an associate professor at the University of Guelph and a Canada research chair in environmental microbiology of agro-ecosystems.

Attention to soil health has increased in recent years as producers look for ways to decrease inputs and increase quality and yields.

We’re talking about soil health a lot in agriculture, and farmers often ask me ‘Is my soil healthy?’ ‘What can I do to keep my soil healthy?’ ” Dunfield says. “However, it’s hard to measure that so what we need to do is measure indicators. If there’s less erosion or more fertility, can we say that’s a healthy soil?”

And, while the researchers know soil microbes are important, they don’t know if greater soil diversity is actually healthier.

“Healthy soil does better under certain conditions like drought and disease pressures, but the science linking soil health to soil microbes is not there,” Dunfield says. “We don’t know if a more diverse soil is a healthier soil.”

So, the researchers are looking at that in conjunction with research Laura van Eerd, an associate professor at the University of Guelph who specializes in nitrogen fertility and cover crops, is doing in Ridgetown involving the impact cover crops have on soil health.

“In Ontario, we are not entirely clear what cover crops are actually doing for the system,” Dunfield says. “They might help with erosion but we don’t see a huge spike in microorganisms. We’re adding on to Laura’s research and looking at the bacterial and fungal community of those systems.”

The project
Funded by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), the project began in 2015 and involves planting rotation vegetable crops at Ridgetown during the growing season. “The cash crop this year is tomatoes,” Dunfield says. “At the end of the year, we’ll put in five cover crops.”

Then, five or six times throughout the year, the researchers take soil from the system and graduate student John Drummelsmith extracts the DNA to look at the soil bacterial and fungal communities and quantify them. This data, Dunfield says, will tell them if fungal and bacterial communities are going up or down depending on the cover crop.

“Some people suggest in healthy bacterial-fungal ratios, fungi should be higher,” she says. “We’re going to look at that using DNA, next generation sequencing. This tells us what bacteria and fungi are there.”

Or, in other words, what the diversity of the system is. Because of van Eerd’s project, Dunfield and Drummelsmith have yield and soil measurements as well, so they will be able to see if the communities are shifting and if there is indeed a link to the soil.

“So we can say yes, more soil diversity is related to cropping systems that produce higher yields,” Dunfield says.


Preliminary findings
Dunfield and her team began sampling in October 2015. This year, they took samples in May, June and August and plan to take a couple more this fall. Early findings show there is indeed some difference in microbial communities under different cover crops.

“We saw an increase in bacterial population with the radish and rye combination cover crop,” Dunfield says. She adds that a couple – oat cover crop and radish and rye cover crop – increased fungal populations. “That’s compared to a no cover crop situation.”

She points out the cash crop had already been harvested for the October 2015 sampling event. More recent sampling should answer the question, “Do we see the same changes when the cash crop is there or is it transient with crop gone?”

More research to come
The researchers recently received additional funding from the Grain Farmers of Ontario to expand the project to more than one site.

“We started in one soil system and this will allow us to expand into other systems to see if we find the same results,” Dunfield says. “We are planning, in next field season, to expand to multiple field sites to expand the analysis.”
 
For sustainability
Research into soil biodiversity and health is vital as the agriculture sector works to create agriculture systems that are sustainable by maintaining yields with the least inputs and that also help the environment. The ever-increasing demand on Ontario’s agricultural sector to provide plant biomass in the form of crops for food, animal grain and even biofuels makes this challenging, but producers are interested in trying cover crops and changing microbial communities in soil.

The researchers believe information on soil biodiversity will show the importance of selected management options such as cover crops, reduced tillage and crop rotations in improving soil health and in sustaining crop productivity.

“We understand this is a farm and people need to maintain their yield,”

Dunfield says. “We’re looking for the most sustainable, environmentally ultimate good to achieve that.

“But, right now, there is no tool to measure biological indicators,” she adds. “No one knows what part of biology is important. We need a good way to measure biology in soil and determine what we need there to have healthy soil. We need the research and data to show if a farmer grows this cover crop, this is what it does to the soil.”

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are among the most common and ubiquitous soil microorganisms in almost all soil systems. They contribute to nitrogen and phosphorus absorption and translocation, alleviation of water stress, resistance to soil-borne pathogens and improvement of soil structure. Several studies have reported organic farming systems tend to have more diverse AMF communities.
Do the best yields come from the healthiest soil? Not necessarily. But new research suggests farm management practices can impact soil health – and improve a crop’s chance of thriving when times get tough.

Dr. Amanda Diochon, a professor in the Department of Geology at Lakehead University, is part of a multi-partner research study that aims to develop an improved soil health test for Ontario.

The project focuses on how different management practices impact soil health from four Ontario sites – in Ottawa, Delhi, Elora and Ridgetown. For Diochon’s part, she’s tracking how components of organic matter change over time.

“It’s possible for a farmer to optimize fertilizer levels and optimize yield, but that doesn’t necessarily mean soil will be healthy,” Diochon says. “And sometimes yields may be consistent across seasons or crop locations, but soil health in different fields can be variable.”

So if it’s possible to produce a high-yielding crop with less-than ideal soil, why does soil health matter? Diochon says the answer is simple: insurance. Healthy soil will be more productive when conditions are less than ideal.

Healthy soil is more resilient and can deal with stressors brought on by a changing climate. For example, soil with healthy levels of good quality organic matter will hold on to more moisture when climate is dry. And soil with a more diverse and productive microbial community is better able to buffer change.

Diochon is evaluating the effects of crop rotation and tillage on the different properties of organic matter. The key, she says, is in finding indicators in organic matter that are sensitive to change.

“We know what soil health is, but can we measure it? Nobody has that nugget yet,” Diochon says.

Her research team has zoned in on seven key indicators that she says will respond over time. Together, the indicators allow her to measure the physical, biological and chemical properties in soil.

“It’s hard to detect change by measuring organic matter or organic carbon,” Diochon says. “But by looking at certain attributes in organic matter, such as light fraction or sand fraction, we see they are sensitive to change.”

By examining soil samples from four sites in Ontario, Diochon says researchers will have a more comprehensive understanding of how organic matter responds across location and soil type.

“The hope is this research will identify best management practices to maintain or enhance soil health,” Diochon says. “We want to make it as profitable as possible for farmers while minimizing the impact on the environment – and ultimately enhance the resiliency of the entire system.”

This research is funded by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and Grain Farmers of Ontario.
The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs is in the process of generating an Agricultural Soil Health and Conservation Strategy in collaboration with partner organizations, and has invited the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association to contribute.

The first step is the discussion paper called “Sustaining Ontario’s Agricultural Soils: Towards a Shared Vision” now available for comment.

The strategy takes aim at the apparent increasing risk of soil degradation in Ontario and the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association is encouraging farmers to mark Ontario Agriculture Week (Oct. 3-9) in a positive way by contributing commentary on behalf of the farming community. Gord Green, OSCIA president and dairy farmer, says now is the time to voice the perspective of primary producers, not after new policies emerge. But before they do, Green urges farmers to also consider what philosophies they want to see in practice.

“This strategy will lay the basic ground work as to what we should be doing, it’s taking a stand that we can build on in a practical sense,” he explains. “Anyone can and will state good things about the benefits of soil health, but we have to go at it with the right philosophy to truly promote positive change.”

Evidence suggests change in some farming practices may be necessary and Green believes all farmers should consider what might pertain to them. As an example, he offers agri-environmental indicators developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada which estimates 82 per cent of Ontario’s cropland is losing soil organic carbon and 54 per cent now has a high risk of soil erosion above the annual rate of regeneration. Farmers intent on protecting soil health on higher risk sandy and loam soils may need to question their current logic for selecting only annual crops, limited rotations, or varying degrees of tillage.

Paul Smith, senior policy advisor for the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs, emphasizes the need for farmers, farm organizations, governments and other partners to work in collaboration on developing the soil strategy. The discussion paper proposes a draft vision and draft goals and objectives for our agricultural soils and invites comment and asks eight questions for people to respond to. All aspects of soil health and conservation are explored in the paper. How farmers manage soils benefits from having good soil information and mapping for decision making. Having the best advice on soil management for farmers means we need universities and colleges to offer the right types of courses and do research on the right topics. Educational tools like the Environmental Farm Plan and incentives for best management practice adoption also play an important role.

Preliminary discussions have already identified significant challenges for improving soil health in the province. Some Ontario soil resource inventory maps still have not been digitized and digital elevation data and Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of agricultural land remains limited. Thousands of soil test results, both private and publicly funded, offer a wealth of data for monitoring soil health but a central system for collecting this information has never been developed. Demand continues to grow for a validated on-farm soil health test. Surveys also show a significant decline in soil science program enrollment in both Canada and the United States as emphasis on soil science at universities worldwide continues to decrease. If supported by the industry, possible actions resulting from the development of this strategy could include contemporary updates to information resources, the production of a farm-scale soil health test, and renewal for soil science programs at colleges and universities across the province.

Both the ministry and Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association strongly encourage farmers to review the full paper for themselves and provide their own input into the process using the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs web site, the Environmental Registry or by e-mailing  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
Healthy productive soils offer a range of benefits to growers from improving nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving carbon sequestration. Diverse crop rotations and proper nutrient management promote large diverse populations of beneficial soil organisms, which break down and cycle nutrients more efficiently and limit disease-causing bacteria and fungi, ultimately improving yields and profitability.
Sept. 15, 2016 - This summer’s drought crisis and how it’s having a serious affect on crop yields was the focus of a round-table discussion between local farmers and Ontario’s Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs last week.

Agriculture minister, Jeff Leal, met with about 30 farmers at Reynolds Bros. Farms in Prince Edward County for a discussion arranged by Mayor Robert Quaiff, to hear firsthand how 60 days without solid rainfall is producing burnt and premature crops forcing them to again seek claims from the province’s insurance program as many did during severe drought conditions in 2012. | READ MORE.
Sept. 15, 2016 - For some parts of the province, the 2016 growing season has been exceptionally dry. As we move towards fall, harvest, and soil sampling, there are some unique soil fertility considerations if you have experienced particularly dry weather this season.
 
Figure 1. Departure from average precipitation across Ontario from April 1-Sept. 12, 2016 can be viewed here.

If you follow a build-up and maintain approach to fertility and your crop yields are significantly reduced due to growing conditions this year, you may be able to give credit to some of the phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) applied this year to next year’s crops. It’s little solace, surely, but here is how it could work. For example, if you applied P at a rate of 63 lbs/acre P2O5 and K at a rate of 45 lbs/acre K2O to account for crop removal from a 180 bu/acre grain corn crop and only yielded 90 bu/acre, you applied 31.5 and 22.5 lbs/acre P2O5 and K2O, respectively, above actual crop removal. On the other hand, if you harvested grain corn as silage, there may not be a significant difference in nutrient removal. In this case, the best way to know for sure is to submit a whole plant sample for analysis.

Dry soils can also have an impact on soil test results themselves. In a dry year, soils may not replenish easily available pools of nutrients as quickly throughout the season. Even if plant growth and nutrient uptake are less than normal, soil test readings may not reflect this. It may take some time once soil moisture conditions improve in the fall for less easily available pools of nutrients to be converted to forms that are measured by the soil test.

Soil test potassium, in particular, may be affected by dry soil. A lack of soil moisture this season resulted in an increased incidence of K deficiencies (see Figure 2). If fall continues to be dry, it may also take longer for K to leach from crop residues and return to the soil. Also, soil test values for soils low in K may be overestimated, whereas fields high in K may test lower. If you have experienced a very dry season, you may want to delay sampling until a bit later in the fall once you have moist soil conditions for an extended period.
 
Figure 2. Potassium deficiency in soybean can be viewed here.

Soil pH can also be affected during a dry season. If precipitation has been well below normal, it is possible that applied fertilizer has not have moved down below 6 inches. In these cases, pH may be reported as lower than it actually is. Also bear in mind that if you applied lime in the spring and have received very little rainfall, there may not have been sufficient moisture to fully activate the neutralizing reactions.

When it comes to nitrogen (N), generally speaking, this season did not present a significant risk of N loss from denitrification (saturated soils) or leaching. Therefore, if you anticipate harvesting a much lower corn yield than was fertilized for, there will likely be a substantial quantity of nitrate nitrogen left in the soil. If this is the case, consider seeding a cereal rye cover crop, which is an excellent scavenger of excess nitrogen in the soil profile. The Midwest Cover Crops Council has a very useful online Cover Crop Decision Tool that provides information on seeding rates and timing.

Finally, samples of dry and hard soils can sometimes be difficult to properly collect. If you cannot obtain a proper number of samples (minimum of 20 cores per 25 acres for a standard composite sample) consistently to a six inch depth, your test results will be likely elevated due to nutrient stratification. In this situation, you can try using another type of soil core sampler. Ultimately, if you are not able to sample to the proper depth, consider delaying sampling and using your latest soil test results.

Putting it all together
  •  Nutrient removal may have been less than normal this season and should be accounted for
  •  Excess nitrogen may be present as nitrate in the soil if crop yield did not match nitrogen fertilization rate. Consider using a cover crop to capture nitrogen that is vulnerable to being lost over the winter.
  • Take caution when interpreting soil sample results acquired in dry soil conditions. Dry conditions may alter values, in particular potassium and pH levels, and may also make it difficult to obtain proper sample depth.
As many have observed this season, good soil management over the long-term has a large impact on a soil’s resilience to dry conditions. Soil organic matter is the ultimate soil property that can help minimize the impacts of weather extremes. Management practices that build organic matter not only improve the soil’s water holding capacity, but also help to buffer against changes in soil pH and provide a larger storehouse of plant-available nutrients.

References
Camberato, J and B Joern. 2012. Nutrient management related to dry soil conditions and poor crop yields. Agronomy Department, Purdue University. https://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/soilfertility/droughtnutrients.pdf.

Sawyer, J. 2003. Drought impacts on soil fertility management. Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University. http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2003/10-6-2003/droughtsoilimpact.html.

Jongeneel, S. 2012. Soil testing after a dry growing season. Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois. http://cropsci.illinois.edu/news/soil-testing-after-dry-growing-season.
Sept. 13, 2016 - The Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association (OSCIA) has announced the new Soil Health Improvement Program (SHIP) for agricultural producers in the Lake Simcoe, Nottawasaga, and South-eastern Georgian Bay watersheds.

With funding by Environment and Climate Change Canada through the Lake Simcoe/South-eastern Georgian Bay Clean-Up Fund, SHIP offers financial support for implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) that improve soil health and reduce edge of field phosphorus loss.

SHIP, which has a similar structure to the Farmland Health Incentive Program, requires producers to complete an on-farm soil health assessment by working with a participating Certified Crop Advisor (CCA). Free of charge to producers, the Soil Health Check-Up and the Muck Soil Health Check-Up offer producers a unique opportunity to develop BMPs that are tailored to the specific needs of their operation.

“This isn’t a one-size-fits-all program," says Christine Schmalz, environmental program manager at OSCIA. "Through working one-on-one with a CCA, producers gain an in-depth understanding of their operation’s Soil Health Challenges and work to develop BMPs that will benefit their farm and the health of the greater watershed.”

The Soil Health Improvement Program offers up to 50 per cent cost-share to a maximum of $20,000 in funding to producers in the Lake Simcoe, Nottawasaga, and South-eastern Georgian Bay watersheds who implement BMPs after completing a Soil Health or Muck Soil Health Check-Up. Eight BMPs are eligible for cost-share under SHIP: cover crops, crop nutrient plans, buffer strips, windbreaks and windstrips, equipment customization, erosion control structures, fragile land retirement, and water runoff management.

This program will begin accepting applications on Sept. 28, 2016 at 12:00 p.m. and funding will be allocated to eligible projects in the order in which applications are received. Producers interested in the program are encouraged to complete their Soil Health Check-Up in preparation. Program materials are now available online as well as a list of participating CCAs who are keen to complete Check-Ups in the eligible area.

For more information on eligibility criteria, the application process, and program deadlines visit the OSCIA website at www.ontariosoilcrop.org  or contact OSCIA directly at 226-706-8671 or email This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
Manitoba producers who choose to burn crop residue will require authorization to do so now through Nov. 15.
The Elora Research Farm, operated by the University of Guelph, is now home to a new soil monitoring laboratory, the first of its kind in North America. This laboratory is designed to better mimic field conditions, yet contain highly sophisticated monitoring equipment. There are 18 soil columns, half of the columns containing Elora Silt Loam and the other half containing Fox Sand, transported intact from a research farm near Cambridge. Each soil column is one meter wide by 1.5 meters deep and contains multiple sensors (for sampling soil water, nutrients and greenhouse gases at various depths). Of the 18 soil columns, groups of six are connected to three underground monitoring stations, which contain analytical equipment and data loggers.

Two cropping systems will be compared, the first as a conventional corn-soy rotation commonly seen in southern Ontario. The second (perennially enhanced rotation or PER) will include winter wheat with the corn, soy rotation in addition to cover crops and intercrops to provide green vegetation throughout as much of the year as possible after harvest and before spring planting so that the soil is never left fallow.

“This PER is being adapted by a wider group of innovative farmers and is believed to improve soil quality, reduce the escapes of nutrients including greenhouse gases and add to the soil’s overall ability to resist droughts,” says Claudia Wagner-Riddle, the scientist heading up this research. “We will measure a variety of soil ecosystem services in each cropping system over time, including: mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate leaching, water storage and use, microbial diversity, and crop production. The sophisticated scientific infrastructure and data will enable us to trace measurable benefits of PER over time.”

“Farmers are continually looking for efficient ways to become more sustainable with resources used on their farms,” says Gord Green, president of the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association. “This scientific data will verify best management practices to protect water quality, reduce greenhouse gases, and may in fact sequester carbon through atmospheric CO2 reductions,” says Green.

The hardware for the soil columns was purchased from Germany where they have been used successfully in many European countries for years. The installation of the soil columns and equipment has been provided by Hoskins Scientific and their German partners, UMS. An installation supervisor from Germany was on site in Elora for the six-week installation period.

A unique group of partners involving scientists from varied backgrounds (experts in trace gas emissions, hydrology, microbiology, soil organic matter, and cropping systems) with contributions from the Grain Farmers of Ontario, the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association (OSCIA) and government departments, will add great depth to the investigation.

OSCIA is a key partner in the Knowledge Translation and Transfer (KTT) component to ensure results are communicated widely to the farm community. The KTT funding has been provided by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. A new Soil Health Centre will be established on site and invitations will be extended to the farming community for site tours and to share results.
Soil organic matter (SOM) is the single most important soil property that you have influence over through your management. Higher soil organic matter levels translate into better water holding capacity, which is critical in a season like the one we are having so far. It also results in higher and more consistent yields in the long run. Many of the key management practices that help build SOM are well known and effective. What’s keeping you from getting started?

In this article, I will highlight some of the latest understanding of soil organic matter and how to restore and maintain it. What role does crop rotation play in that % organic matter value you get back on your soil test? Where do organic amendments fit into the operation? Finally, can cover crops help build soil organic matter on your farm?

The role of soil microbes in soil organic matter
Soil microbes and larger soil organisms play an important role in cycling organic matter in soil. Microbes decompose plant residue and, in doing so, release carbon as carbon dioxide (CO2). They also use a portion of the carbon for their bodies, which are themselves part of the “soil organic matter pool.” It has recently been found, however, that soil microbes also influence SOM cycling because dead and dormant microbial cells and by-products can be a significant component of soil organic matter itself. An example of a microbial by-product is a carbon-rich substance called glomalin, which is produced by mycorrhizal fungi, typically stays around for 10-50 years in soil, and can account for almost one third of the total carbon in some soils.

Given that soil microbes themselves are such important contributors to SOM, but also play an important role in decomposition, how do you manage your soil so that you’re balancing the two?

The importance of residue quality
Dr. Lisa Tiemann, a soil microbial ecologist from Michigan State University and 2016 Southwest Agricultural Conference presenter, argues that nitrogen is at the heart of the explanation. On average, soil microbes contain 8 parts of carbon for every 1 part of nitrogen (their C: N ratio). As microbes consume plant residue, around two thirds of the carbon is lost as CO2 and one third is taken into their biomass. This makes the C: N ratio of 24:1 critical (since one third of 24 is 8). Residues below 24:1 are broken down quickly and stimulate microbial growth since they provide easily available nitrogen. On the other hand, residues above 24:1 contain more carbon relative to nitrogen than the microbes require. This means that existing microbial populations need to find nitrogen from other sources, such as existing SOM.  

Table 1. C:N Ratios. Available soon on the Field Crop News website.

Two main groups of microbes are important when it comes to soil organic matter. Fast-growing microbes reproduce rapidly, thrive on low C: N residue, and are generally inefficient (gain a relatively small amount of energy per amount of carbon consumed). Slow-growers, on the other hand, reproduce slowly, feed on high C: N residue (think wheat straw), but are energy efficient.  

Dr. Tiemann stated that the best way to build and maintain organic matter is to strike a healthy balance between the two types of microbes. She offered the following advice for doing so:

•    Wake up soil microbes by growing cover crops and applying organic amendments
•    Provide a mixed quality of amendments over a rotation – both high C: N and low C: N residues and manures
•    Diversify your crop rotation – more diverse rotations in general have higher SOM and more active and diverse microbes

Ontario research shows that adding winter wheat to a rotation increases soil carbon over time. When red clover is included as a cover crop, it likely contributes to soil organic matter not only due to its biomass, but also because it provides a high nitrogen residue that balances the high carbon residue of wheat and corn.

Roots vs. shoots
Often the success of a cover crop is judged by its aboveground growth. However, what’s going on belowground may be even more important if it is SOM you’re after. Research has consistently found that carbon from roots is more stable in soil than aboveground residues. In other words, carbon from roots sticks around in soil longer than carbon from shoots. So, if you’re looking to build soil organic matter, achieving consistently good root systems makes a difference.

Figure 1. Root growth on a fall-seeded cover crop. Roots play a very important role in contributing to soil organic matter. Available soonon the Field Crop News website.

What does this mean?
•    Better soil structure and better crop root growth translates into higher yields, and also contributes more to long-term organic matter as those roots break down
•    Maximize root growth with fibrous rooted crops, such as wheat, as well as cover crops
•    Don’t judge a cover crop entirely by its aboveground looks – do a little digging

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