In 2015, Ontario producers saw excellent fall conditions for planting, and most got their crop in early, so plants were well established going into the winter.
In 2014, producers weren’t so lucky: a wet fall meant delayed planting, and to make matters worse it was followed by a cold winter. Many producers experienced problems with winter survival.
“It can be a challenge for growers to get out in to the field in a timely manner,” Follings says.
Peter Johnson, an agronomist with Real Agriculture, is currently working on studies examining the impact of soil type, seeding rates and seeding dates on stand establishment.
“Typically here in Ontario we get about 70 per cent stand establishment,” Johnson says. “We get higher levels if we seed earlier into excellent conditions. Last year we were getting fields with 85 per cent stand establishment, but typically we seed under less than ideal conditions.”
There’s a growing body of research pointing to agronomic methods that can improve stand establishment in winter wheat even in bad years, Johnson says. This year, he and technician Shane McClure wrapped up a three-year “seeding rate by seeding date” interaction study, and the data should be available soon.
But Johnson says it’s clear that the earlier producers seed, the lower their seeding rate can be. The later they seed, the higher the seeding rate should be in order to maximize sunlight interception.
“We seed ultra early, two weeks prior to the recommended date, and at that stage we recommend decreasing seeding rate by 25 per cent,” Johnson says. “Our normal target is about 1.5 million seeds per acre, and when we seed two weeks ahead of optimum date, we can drop that to 1.2 million seeds quite easily, with no impact on yield.” On heavy clay soils, he recommends starting at 1.8 million seeds per acre and adjusting seeding rates according to date from there.
“Once you’ve moved past optimum seeding date, my standard recommendation is to increase seeding populations 100,000 plants per acre for every five days past that optimum date.”
In areas prone to heavy snow loads, snow mould infestations are much more severe with early seeding dates and high seeding rates. “Lodging concerns increase when growers seed heavy seeding rates early,” Johnson says. “But with highest wheat yields coming from early seeding dates, seeding early at lower seeding rates just makes sense.”
This year, Kelly Turkington, a pathologist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s (AAFC) Lacombe Research and Development Centre in Lacombe, Alta., and Brian Beres, an agronomist with AAFC’s Lethbridge Research and Development Centre in Lethbridge, Alta., published new research pointing to the effectiveness of seed treatments used in tandem with appropriate sowing density to overcome poor stand establishment in winter wheat.
In one study, Beres and Turkington argue seed treatments are best used to offset weak, low-yielding systems.
If producers are starting with high quality seed with good germination rates, good vigour and low levels of pathogen infection, and they’re putting seed into a system with good seed-to-soil contact and using appropriate seeding rates, Turkington says the impact of seed treatments will be limited.
“Where we’ve seen seed treatments are a real benefit is when seed-borne disease, diseases that will impact germination, seedling growth or stand establishment, or diseases like smuts, are present in a field,” he says.
Turkington’s work was all done in Western Canada, but Johnson says similar results have been seen in Eastern Canada. “If you’re seeding into ideal conditions from a stand establishment point of view with no disease pressure, you may not see the benefit of seed treatments,” he echoes. “But if you get bunt in your wheat crop, that’s 100 per cent crop loss. For $3 per acre of seed treatment, or even $5 per acre, whatever that premium is, we can’t afford to take that risk.”
Johnson recommends every producer use a good fungicide seed treatment. Insecticide on the seed isn’t needed everywhere, but is more regionally isolated according to soil type and insect pressure. But he feels fungicide seed treatments are essential, even though they don’t always increase yield. “If I get dwarf bunt or common bunt in the crop, the grain comes out of the field smelling like rotten fish. The industry simply won’t accept it. That risk is simply too high,” he says.
“In terms of stand establishment, we see a benefit in stand establishment if you apply a fungicidal seed treatment under adverse conditions.”
Thin-Meiw (Alek) Choo, a research scientist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) in Ottawa, is leading the project. He notes, “Before we started this research project, we had already identified two good malting barley varieties for Eastern Canada: Cerveza and AAC Synergy. Cerveza is on the list of recommended varieties for Quebec and the Maritimes. AAC Synergy is now being tested in the registration and recommendation tests in Quebec and the Maritimes. These two varieties have performed well in Quebec, the Maritimes and New York State. They were developed by Bill Legge at AAFC’s Brandon Research and Development Centre [in Manitoba].”
Now Choo’s project is helping to identify more and better malting varieties for Eastern Canada. Called the Eastern Canada Malting Barley Test, it runs from April 2013 to March 2018. It involves screening hundreds of advanced breeding lines and varieties from other regions to find ones with three essential traits: resistance to Fusarium head blight, resistance to lodging, and high yields under Eastern Canadian conditions.
“Resistance to Fusarium head blight is a must for successful malting barley production in Eastern Canada,” Choo says. The region’s warm, humid growing conditions favour this serious fungal disease. Fusarium head blight reduces grain yield, but more importantly it can produce mycotoxins on the grain. He notes, “The maltsters and brewers do not accept any barley grain contaminated with mycotoxins.”
The often rainy and stormy conditions in Eastern Canada increase the risk of lodging, which can result in lower yields and poorer grain and malting quality. So Choo is looking for malting lines with shorter and stronger straw that are better able to resist lodging.
And, of course, yield is a top consideration. “Any malting barley varieties must yield well in Eastern Canada. Otherwise, producers will not grow them,” he says.
Choo’s project team is testing malting barley lines from the Prairies, where most of Canada’s malting barley is grown, and some cultivars from other countries. “Every year, we have evaluated 23 lines from the Field Crop Development Centre of Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 38 lines from the University of Saskatchewan, and 36 lines from the Brandon Research and Development Centre. We have also tested seven barley varieties from Argentina, seven varieties from Australia, and 21 varieties from Brazil,” he says.
The evaluation process involves several steps. “[First] we plant these barley lines at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, and compare them with our standard varieties such as Leader [a recommended feed barley variety] and AAC Synergy. Last year, we identified 26 of these lines as high yielding. Therefore, in 2016, we have planted these 26 lines at three locations across Eastern Canada: Charlottetown, Normandin, [Que.] and Ottawa.” This fall, they will be analyzing the results from the 2016 growing season, and they’ll continue the testing work in 2017. In the years ahead, very promising lines that have not yet been registered in Canada could be entered into the variety registration tests for Eastern Canada.
The project is only testing two-row barley lines. Choo explains, “Six-row barley is more susceptible to Fusarium head blight than two-row barley. Therefore, we do not encourage our producers to grow six-row barley for malting in Eastern Canada.”
Choo is collaborating on this research with Bill Legge, Aaron Beattie at the University of Saskatchewan, Patricia Juskiw at the Field Crop Development Centre, Denis Pageau at AAFC’s Normandin Research Farm, and Marta Izydorczyk at the Canadian Grain Commission. The project is funded by AAFC, the Alberta Barley Commission and the Atlantic Grains Council.
The project’s results will give eastern growers more varietal choices for malting barley production. As well, Choo will be using the superior lines identified through the testing work as parents for crossing in his barley breeding program. Promising malting barley lines from his program will be sent to the Canadian Grain Commission for malting quality analysis. Eastern growers can look forward to possible further improvements in malting varieties down the road.
If growers can achieve malting quality with barley produced in Eastern Canada, it could potentially be a very good opportunity. “Malting barley typically has a higher value than barley grown for livestock, for example. So it would be a value-added proposition for growers,” says Neil Campbell, general manager of the PEI Grain Elevators Corporation.
“I’m not sure what the potential is for malting barley production in Atlantic Canada, but it could be quite substantial because the [craft malt and brewery] business has exploded here in the Maritimes in the last three or four years. Nova Scotia alone has 40 different local breweries that use malting barley and other grains,” Campbell says.
He also points out that, in addition to Choo’s work, other malting barley research is underway in the Maritimes. For example, Aaron Mills at AAFC in Charlottetown is developing recommendations for malting barley agronomic practices and is testing modern and heritage malting varieties in Eastern Canadian conditions.
Campbell also notes the combined sales of Canadian malting barley and malt are worth about $1 billion per year. “So if the Atlantic provinces could even get one per cent of that, it’s a nice little number!”
Until now, the gap between agricultural producers and those who blame those producers for eutrophication has seemed unbridgeable. Farmers argue they have a right to earn a livelihood from their land. Environmentalists – and, increasingly, politicians and laypeople too – argue water quality and the good of all must override farmers’ land use needs. Now, plant breeders are working on developing new perennial cereal crops that may meet the requirements of both sides.
“There are limited options for a cash crop grower who is concerned about nutrient runoff into watersheds. They might think about planting something like grass for a considerable distance around a water body, but that might mean that they give up a considerable amount of revenue,” says Jamie Larsen, a researcher with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Lethbridge, Alta., and lead plant breeder on a new perennial rye study. “In the future, an option would be to plant a perennial grain crop that would [be] productive, but also provide significant environmental benefits.”
“Perennial grains require a change in mentality about how cropping is done. They’re different, no doubt about it. But times have changed. Perennial grains offer the potential for economic benefit, while also considering sustainability priorities,” adds Doug Cattani, a researcher at the University of Manitoba who is currently developing a perennial wheatgrass to suit Canadian growing conditions.
Though cereal grains have been treated as annuals for decades, many cereals are willing to function as perennials if given the chance. Rye, for example, is a robust and surprisingly hard to kill plant. Each plant in some varieties of rye can produce productively for three or four years. Other cereals are even longer-lived: Cattani says intermediate wheatgrass can live at least eight to 10 years, and may produce grain productively beyond the four years he has tested them for.
In addition to producing a harvestable cereal crop each year, perennial cereals also offer grazeable forage each fall, erosion control and the absence of yearly seeding-time pressure on the producer. Most importantly for those concerned about healthy water systems, perennial cereals have the potential to slow nutrient runoff in a host of ways.
“If you can have something in the ground all year round and actively growing every day of the growing season, you’ll have much less nutrient runoff than if you plant a seed in spring and pull that plant out of the ground 95 or 100 days later,” Cattani says.
First and most obviously, perennial plants capture and remove nutrients from the soil each and every day of their growing season.
In addition to the number of days they are able to capture nutrients each year, perennials also easily surpass annuals regarding the depth of soil from which they can capture nutrients and the total volume of nutrient capture. At between two and three metres in length, perennial cereal roots reach twice as deeply into the soil as do annual cereals. The longer, denser root biomass serves to capture nutrients more efficiently and more deeply in the soil, decreasing nutrient movement through the soil and limiting the need for additional fertilizer application.
Actively growing perennial cereals also help to use up water that would otherwise sit on the land in early spring, decreasing the likelihood of leaching.
And there’s more: perennial crops’ strong roots, taller plant height and early spring start mean they are more competitive than their annual counterparts. As such, they often require far less weed management. Wheatgrass’ many tillers take competitive advantage a step forward, forming a tight, almost sod-like layer that is highly effective at limiting weeds.
Perennials excel on the disease resistance front too. The fact that they are long-lived typically means they have accrued a superior disease resistance profile that allows them to survive, resulting in fewer fungicide requirements.
Larsen’s perennial rye study has barely begun, but already he is hopeful perennials may have a real place in tomorrow’s agricultural reality.
“The more I work with perennial grains, the more applications I see for them, from the perspective of limiting nutrient runoff to conserving soil, to saving producers input dollars and planting time. This is the next step in cropping efficiency,” he says.
For all of perennial cereals’ benefits, one fairly serious drawback remains: because a perennial plant must put some energy into its root reserves, it cannot yield as much as its annual cousin. Currently, perennial cereal crop yields are significantly lower than annual cereal crops. Cattani’s intermediate wheatgrass, for example, yields between 10 and 20 bushels per acre.
That said, breeders are already making significant leaps forward in perennials’ yield potential. And, because there is increasing market demand for more sustainable agriculture, farmers might capture better prices for perennial grains compared to conventional annual grains.
“Perennial grains are not going to be as productive as annual cereals. That’s the truth. But it could be a high-value grain that some companies might be willing to pay a little extra for. That’s the potential,” Larsen says.
“There is certainly interest in perennial grains. Quite a number of producers would probably be willing to grow a perennial cereal if we could provide them with a variety that is adapted to their growth area, that offers good yield potential for at least three or four years, and that has a good agronomic package ready when we release the variety,” Cattani says.
Cattani expects perennial cereals are likely still a good number of years from commercialization.
“I’m excited. I see the potential,” he says. “But having said that, I think we’re 10 to 15 years away from releasing an intermediate wheatgrass for our regions. We can’t say ‘plant it’ when we don’t yet know how best to grow it. I think perennial cereals are an area of research you’ll see explored relatively significantly over the next 10 years.
For naysayers who are pessimistic about the potential for a lower-yield crop to find success in Canada, Cattani says: “Before we had canola as a major human-use oil, a lot of people said it had too many issues. But canola is a good example of what is possible when we apply resources to a potential crop to help solve key issues.
“What makes the concept of perennial cereals interesting is – even as it is now – it is a much more productive option than simply planting a forage grass, and it’s really sustainable. It has the potential to make a lot of people with conflicting priorities happy.”
Of numerous iterations of wheatgrass, the most promising and the closest to field production is Kernza, developed by The Land Institute in Kansas. Now under examination in Western Canada for adaptation to this climate and growing conditions, Kernza is a new class of grain that will eventually spawn varieties for all growing regions in Canada. But growers need patience because it could be a decade before the first variety is perfected and seed is available.
“We are narrowing down our germplasm and will be harvesting plots this year,” says Doug Cattani, the lead researcher working with Kernza in Canada. The University of Manitoba plant scientist adds there is a lot to learn about Kernza production besides developing varieties adapted to the Canadian growing system.
Ideally, a perennial grain would be left in the field similar to forage for a number of years. The heads would be harvested annually, but the crop would continue to grow. It’s not known how many crops can be harvested before production decreases when the field can be turned into forage for a year or two.
“Perennial wheat has deep roots that can reach deep moisture,” explains Jamie Larsen of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Lethbridge, Alta. “It might work well in less productive areas to reduce erosion and build up the soil. Or it could be planted along a stream to protect the area, but there would be a crop as well. Typically, it is also disease resistant and it will compete strongly with weeds.” While it is in the field, it will be useful to break up weed and disease cycles while also replenishing the soil.
“From a seed industry perspective, I think this could look like a model similar to forage crops,” suggests Ellen Sparry, genetics and general manager for C & M Seeds in Palmerston, Ont. “I can see this potentially having a fit for soil recovery and for drier areas.” From a seed standpoint, she says, end use and production would have to match the annual wheat varieties that growers currently rely on.
This is where Cattani is focusing his attention. He is selecting and crossing to get Kernza varieties that are well-adapted to Canada’s growing areas, that have consistent quality and yield year after year, and which offer all the benefits promised by annual crops.
“We need to work out the system,” Cattani admits. “What do we need to do to get it ready for the following year? We can harvest it and cut it back, but what happens if we cut it right to the ground? We need to look at post-harvest management to see if we can get a consistent second and third crop.”
Larsen says perennial grain crops will mine moisture and nutrients lower in the soil strata because they put down a long root system. However, he adds, there may still be a need to add nutrients. But how much?
“You will get better drainage, better soil health, access to nutrients that are below the access of annual crops,” Cattani continues. “There’s a host of benefits that could accrue for future crops when perennial grains are included in the rotation and we want to be able to maximize the yield every year. But we’re still in the initial stages of development and we are at least 10 to 15 years away from a variety with a known production package to give producers.”
Nevertheless, Sparry believes it is good for growers to know about Kernza and to begin thinking about how it could fit in their operations. “From a seed standpoint, it would market similar to forage,” she suggests.
“Certainly, this will fit in any operation,” Larsen adds. There are also many potential uses for Kernza, he says, from basic livestock feed to bread-making. A company in the United States has also incorporated Kernza into beer production.
Unlike current crops that have been tweaked over time and continue to be improved, Kernza and other perennial grain crops need to be perfected before they enter the field, from production recommendations to management advice to end use requirements. Cattani reports there is an issue with kernel shattering in some Kernza varieties and he is working on selections to minimize that while also looking at yield potential and field readiness.
As Cattani prepared to harvest his plots of Kernza in August, he considered the best methods to accomplish the task and how to prepare the plots for production in 2017.
“We’d like to get three seed yields per crop no matter what the growing conditions are each year,” Cattani says.
For his part, Larsen would like growers to learn about Kernza and other wheatgrass prospects. He suggests they need to consider how and where these new grain crops could fit into their operations. Those with experience with forage will have a good idea how Kernza can be managed, but there will still be some adjustments they will have to make to ensure continued success for both human consumption and possible grazing for livestock. The researchers believe it would be ideal if the two could be accomplished simultaneously each year, but, again, that possibility still needs to be examined.
When something as promising as Kernza comes along, it’s difficult to wait until there is seed and a complete set of recommendations to ensure success in the field. Research in both the United States and Canada suggests Kernza is the closest to field readiness of the perennial grains. In the near future, when perennial grain is in a rotation, it could be possible to recover soil to the standard early settlers flocked to the untouched prairie to get. It may have taken 100 years to undo the value in those untouched soils across Canada, but within a decade a solution to revisit those heady days of early crop production could be field-ready.
In Ontario, 110,000 acres were seeded to barley in 2014, with a farm value per bushel rated at $4.16, according to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA).
Even if barley has yet to catch up to higher-value crops in Ontario, Johnson — OMAFRA’s former provincial wheat specialist — hopes to increase the value of the crop for growers by updating nitrogen (N) recommendations.
Along with Shane McClure, a research lead for the Middlesex Soil and Crop Improvement Association, Johnson has just begun the third year of a three-year trial looking at potential synergies between nitrogen response and fungicide interactions in spring barley in Ontario.
“What we’re hoping to find are ways to increase yields on spring cereals to make them more competitive economically and keep them in farmers’ rotations,” Johnson says. “Spring cereals have a fit in Ontario agriculture, but the yield increases have not kept pace with corn, so acres continue to drop. We were hoping to find a good synergy between N and fungicides in barley, oats and spring wheat, so that we can find ways to increase yields and make them more profitable for growers.”
The nitrogen-fungicide synergy in winter wheat was “virtually proven” by 2010 in Ontario, says Johnson, following research he began in 2008 with colleagues David Hooker and Jonathan Brinkman. Since then, they’ve performed multiple studies to try to finish the response curve with and without fungicides.
For the spring barley study, four field scale trials were established across southern Ontario in spring 2014, followed by six in 2015, each using two replicate, randomized N rates, both with and without fungicides. Plots were also set up at New Liskeard and Winchester. The studies hoped to show — as in winter wheat — a strong synergy between nitrogen and fungicide applications.
This year, the funding dried up, but Johnson and McClure are continuing the study regardless.
“We’re essentially doing it for free. We thought it was important enough to do the third year,” Johnson says.
One plus one equals two
The results were different than expected: in most plots, the researchers did not observe a strong synergy between N and fungicide applications.
“In southern Ontario we saw a clear yield response to N, and we saw a clear yield bump to the fungicide, but with the synergy, it’s one plus one doesn’t equal two,” Johnson says. “In winter wheat on our best varieties we’ve seen one plus one can equal 3.5. In spring barley, one plus one equals two. Full stop.”
There are two potential reasons for this, Johnson believes: climate and genetics. The heat in southwestern Ontario tends to be a limiting factor. But genetics are even more telling.
“If you look at the trend lines in Ontario, winter wheat has gone up at about a bushel per acre per year over the past 35 years, while spring barley has only gone up at 0.2 bushels per acre per year,” he says. “The genetics aren’t there yet to show that synergy.
“We have AAFC breeders who are supposed to breed for all of Eastern Canada, but the barley breeder at the University of Guelph was rolled into the winter wheat breeder position. In terms of private interests, the one company doing that barley breeding has stopped doing it. The dollars invested in barley breeding in Ontario — there’s no comparison, compared to wheat.”
But the study’s results are not all negative. In New Liskeard, where the climate is much more suited to spring crops, a small synergy was observed between N and fungicide in spring barley.
The New Liskeard data set was small, but much higher final yields (115 bushels per acre) were observed there, along with evidence of a small synergy between N and fungicides. “That’s very hopeful, so now what we should be doing is looking at that synergy across varieties,” Johnson says.
“Based on the average data 80 pounds of N with fungicide was the most economical treatment in southwestern Ontario, while 50 pounds of N with fungicide had the highest rate of return at Winchester (eastern Ontario),” concludes Johnson and McClure’s Crop Advances Field Crop Report for the study. “New Liskeard had the highest response to N with 127 pounds of N and fungicide being the most economical treatment.”
The report concludes N response was significantly greater than recommendations in the Agronomy Guide in both the southwestern and New Liskeard regions, and so the recommendations require further assessment.
The data from this study will be brought to the Ontario Soil Management Research and Services Committee (OSMRSC), which makes fertility recommendations for the province, in hopes they’ll update the rates.
“Growers are certainly looking at this data and asking if it can work for them — they’re experimenting with higher rates than the official recommendations,” he says. “The recommendations are based on old varieties and the climate from the 1970s and 1980s.”
McClure says he was surprised by the high yields — and the high maximum economic rate of nitrogen — in the two years of the trial. “I didn’t expect the maximum economic rate of nitrogen to be as high as it was. I think it might have something to do with how high the yields were in general over those two years. They were fairly cool summers. I’m interested to see what happens if we see the same results as we did the last two years in a hot, dry year,” he says.
Very little research has been done on malting barley production practices in Eastern Canada – Mills calls it “uncharted territory.” So he is leading a project to develop information that eastern growers need to produce this relatively high-value cereal crop either as a commodity or for craft brewery niche markets.
The impetus for the research came out of Mills’ long-standing interest in brewing.
“I’ve been brewing at home ‘all-grain’ [a brewing method] for over a decade, and I also worked in a craft brewery for six months after I finished my PhD. So I’m familiar with the industry and with the need for local ingredients. When I started working here in P.E.I., I noticed there wasn’t a lot of malting barley being grown. So we decided to give malting barley a shot and see what we could do.”
He notes, “In P.E.I., we grow approximately 60,000 acres of barley. That is all feed barley. Malt barley and feed barley are almost like two different crops because the management is so different. You really have to baby the malting barley; a fungicide program is a very important part of growing malting barley on the East Coast.”
Mills’ five-year project (April 2013 to March 2018) is funded by the Alberta Barley Commission, the Brewing and Malting Barley Research Institute and AAFC under the National Barley Research Cluster.
The project’s main objective is to examine how different production practices affect malting quality characteristics. “We would like to provide information for growers to make it easier for them to successfully produce a high quality crop. We want to generate some local data that can serve as a benchmark for local growers,” Mills says.
“We’re looking at the influence of seeding rate and fertility rate on two malting barley varieties from out west, and we’re looking to see if the response is similar at five sites in eastern North America.”
The five sites provide good coverage of the cereal growing region in the east: Princeville, in southern Quebec (with Semican); Ithaca, in upstate New York (with Cornell University); Ottawa, in eastern Ontario (with AAFC); New Liskeard, in northern Ontario (with the University of Guelph); and Harrington, P.E.I.
The two barley varieties are Newdale and Cerveza. Mills says, “Newdale was the industry standard [for malting barley] for a long time, and it seemed to do really well in some of the earlier disease screening trials that were done here. Cerveza is a newer variety that seemed to do really well under eastern growing conditions.”
The project builds on a previous malting barley study in Western Canada led by John O’Donovan, an AAFC research scientist, and follows similar methods. The treatments compare seeding rates of 200 and 400 seeds per square metre, and nitrogen fertilizer rates of zero, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kilograms per hectare.
The project team is examining the effects of these treatments on such characteristics as crop growth, yield, disease, lodging, days to maturity, percentage of plump seed, and protein content.
As well, the Canadian Grain Commission’s Grain Research Laboratory is malting the harvested grain and testing it for properties that are important for malting and brewing (such as fine-grind extract, Kolbach index, wort beta-glucan, diastatic power and alpha-amylase).
Mills explains that seeding rates between 200 and 400 seeds/m2 are generally recommended for malting barley. O’Donovan’s research in Western Canada found that 300 seeds/m2 was the optimum seeding rate for malting barley yield and quality characteristics, such as protein level and kernel uniformity. Seeding rates that were too low tended to increase the number of non-uniform kernels and increase tillering, which could lead to delayed maturity. Seeding rates that were too high not only increased input costs but also tended to increase the risks of poorer yields and lower kernel plumpness and didn’t improve protein or kernel uniformity.
Nitrogen rates also tend to be a balancing act between too much and too little.
O’Donovan’s research showed higher nitrogen levels increased grain yield and kernel weight, but had a negative effect on malting quality characteristics such as protein content.
Mills’ results to date show higher nitrogen rates are not good for malting quality under eastern conditions. “The higher rates of nitrogen translate into a much higher protein level. For malting barley, you want the protein content to be around 11 to 13.5 per cent. With some of the higher rates of nitrogen, the protein content was at 17 per cent, so it automatically kicks the grain out for malting quality.”
He also notes, “It has been difficult to dial in the appropriate level of fertility that is optimum for both yield and quality.”
Another important preliminary finding from Mills’ project is that the crop preceding malt barley seems to have a tremendous effect on malting quality. “For example, buckwheat seems to be a really good crop to precede malting barley. But crops like a clover are absolutely terrible for malting barley quality.”
He thinks the main factor in the poorer quality after a clover crop is likely the residual nitrogen in the soil, but he suspects some other factors may also be playing a role.
Mills is also taking part in some multi-agency research to test modern and heritage barley varieties in eastern North America. He explains that Ashley McFarland of Michigan State University has formed the Eastern Malt Barley Working Group, which stretches from Illinois to P.E.I.
“Everyone involved is working to find out how to get acceptable yield and quality to produce malt barley locally,” Mills says.
In one component of the group’s work, Richard Horsley of North Dakota State University is leading a Brewers Association-funded project, the Eastern Spring Barley Nursery, to evaluate about 25 spring barley varieties at about eight sites in the east.
Another component involves partnering with Chris Ridout from the John Innes Centre in the United Kingdom.
Mills notes, “This research institute has brought 80 barley accessions out of long-term storage. They’ve already fully developed the value chain for one heritage barley variety, ‘Chevallier,’ for modern use in the craft beer industry in and around Norwich, England, as well as a few larger craft breweries in the U.S., including Sierra Nevada and Goose Island.” Researchers in the working group are evaluating these U.K. heritage varieties at their sites.
He thinks heritage barley varieties could be of particular interest to craft brewers. “The varieties would have to be at least as good as the ones they are buying now. But if they can also attach a story to the barley, I think that’s part of the appeal for the brewers and the brewery owners. Craft brewers are also interested in developing beers with different flavour and aroma characteristics, and the use of heritage barley varieties may be one way to develop those qualities.”
Mills concludes, “We’re trying to evaluate these varieties and hammer out the agronomy as quickly as possible. For example, we have three craft maltsters that are hoping to open up this year in P.E.I., so there is going to be some local market demand in the near future. It would be nice if we had some locally grown barley to put through those maltsters and get our growers into that value chain.”
PGRs are not new to agriculture and have been used extensively in other cereal growing regions. Some work was done with these products several years ago, but they have only recently been trialed again in Western Canada to see if there have been any improvements in products and how they may fit into production practices. A PGR application can cause various responses in wheat crops, including shorter plants (internodes), thicker stems, thicker stem cell walls, less lodging and potentially higher yields.
Researchers at the Northeast Agriculture Research Foundation (NARF) in Melfort, Sask., began a three-year project in 2013 to demonstrate the plant growth regulator Manipulator (chlormequat chloride) at various application timings and fertility
levels in spring wheat.
“We initiated demonstration trials in collaboration with Engage Agro to determine the effects of Manipulator on yield, lodging and height in spring wheat,” explains Jessica Pratchler, field research agronomist with NARF. “The objective of applying the PGR was to help reduce lodging and increase yields. By reducing the height of the crop, more resources are available for seed filling instead of producing stem height. The crop should also be more uniform, improving application timing for inputs and harvest.”
The trials were conducted using the spring wheat variety Shaw VB seeded at 275 plants/m2. Manipulator was applied at the label rate (1.87 L/ha) at three different timings, Zadoks 21 (Z21) or first tiller, Z31 or first node, and Z39 or flag leaf. Based on a soil test rate of 110 kg/ha of N and 25 kg/ha of P2O5, three fertility rates were used at 100, 125, and 150 per cent of the recommendation. For each trial, plant height, lodging and maturity ratings, yield and quality were measured.
“Overall, the demonstration trials with Manipulator proved to be successful in northeast Saskatchewan over the last three years,” says Pratchler. “This product has shown to be highly useful in the northeast as it decreases height and lodging, as well as increases the yield in spring wheat. All three PGR application timings were able to reduce the severity or incidence of lodging, and resulted in shorter plants 94 per cent of the time. Application at Z31 produced the best yields.”
The best results were produced when the product was applied at the Z21 and Z31 stages, however application at the Z31 stage produced the largest decrease in height. However, if growers also determine a fungicide application is warranted, they can plan to wait and apply the PGR then, which would reduce a field pass. At this stage, a reduction in height is not as significant, but still beneficial.
The trial showed Manipulator in conjunction with high fertility rates can produce a crop with less lodging. In the trials, the fertility rate did not play a large role in the amount of lodging except for the 150 per cent rate with no PGR application, which had the highest lodging rating. In addition, yield, protein, and other grain quality factors were not changed by either PGR application or fertility rate.
Overall, Manipulator application resulted in crop shortening and lodging reduction, regardless of fertility rate or PGR timing, while maintaining spring wheat yields.
In 2015, Manipulator was registered for use on spring, winter and durum wheat in Canada. However, Engage Agro is still waiting for maximum residue limit (MRL) limits to be set by the United States government, which will hopefully be in place by the 2017 growing season.
As with any new products, growers should talk to their grain buyer before applying the product to ensure there aren’t any market restrictions in place.
“Although we have had a lot of interest from growers at our field days, most growers are waiting until the MRLs are in place before trying Manipulator,” adds Pratchler. “Once the MRLs are approved and in place, then NARF has plans to continue with additional research on the use of PGRs in conjunction with different seeding rates, as well as nitrogen levels. We don’t completely understand how PGRs will interact with the whole agronomic package, and therefore more research is needed.”
NARF also has another project underway looking at two different PGRs and their effect on forage crops. They are also collaborating on another project led by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada researchers in Lethbridge looking at PGR in winter wheat and fall rye.
Jaspers laid down more than four metric tons of AAC gateway winter wheat seed on 24 hectares of Janssens land.
This particular variety is recommended by agriculture researcher Tarlok Singh Sahota, after three years of testing at the Thunder Bay Agricultural Research Station. The seed was proven to give the highest grain yield amongst all winter wheat varieties. | READ MORE.
Two research and breeding projects are underway looking at cold tolerance and winter hardiness in winter cereals in an Eastern Canadian context.
“Cold tolerance, winter survival and winter hardiness in Eastern Canada is a complex beast,” says Jamie Larsen, a research scientist in perennial cereals, fall rye and winter triticale breeding for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC).
Larsen is based in Lethbridge, Alta., but his research has an eastern angle. Five years ago, he was hired out of the University of Guelph to be AAFC’s perennial cereals breeder in Lethbridge. One of the focuses of his program is to develop a winter cereals breeding project – fall rye, winter triticale for Canada and durum wheat. Collaborations in Ontario have led to the testing of winter triticale varieties for three years, and plots in Harrow and Palmerston are testing out winter triticale varieties under Ontario conditions.
He says the differences between Western Canada and Eastern Canada are significant when it comes to winter hardiness. Where cereals are generally bred to be tolerant to long periods of freezing in Western Canada, Eastern Canadian varieties need to be both cold tolerant and tolerant to ice encasement, freeze-thaw cycles and frost heaving.
“In Western Canada we don’t get as much snow and icing-over, thaws and water settling followed by freezing. In Ontario it comes and goes, so you get this puddling in the fields and it gets cold again and freezes,” he says.
Once the three-year project’s funding runs out, Larsen and his team hope to extend it to keep the study going. “From an Ontario perspective, there are concerns around eutrophication of the Great Lakes, and one way to deal with that is to plant more winter crops that can survive the winter, and to make use of those nutrients and limit run-off,” he says.
But the results from the triticale study are also extremely promising from a grain yield and biomass perspective. “The yields are incredibly high, much higher than winter wheat in Western Canada,” he says. “What we saw is a yield advantage as high as 50 per cent in the winter triticale over winter wheat. In some cases the only thing that could beat them is the hybrid rye that’s now out in the marketplace. We will find out shortly if the same holds true in Ontario.”
Larsen is especially optimistic about triticale’s potential as a biomass crop. “In the U.S., it’s used by dairies and livestock producers as a double crop in significant acreage and this practice, currently at approximately 1.2 million acres, is growing,” he says.
“Canadian varieties are not cold tolerant enough, but if we can select for varieties that work in Ontario there could be pretty quick uptake for this material, and I think we’re close.”
At the University of Guelph, wheat breeder and associate professor Alireza Navabi, while breeding for winter-hardiness in wheat for Eastern Canada, is also working on two different characteristics of wheat that are important to cold tolerance – response to vernalization, and response to photoperiod, or day length.
Flowering and maturity of wheat are controlled by interactions between vernalization and photoperiod response genes in addition to earliness genes, Navabi explains. “Vernalization can work as a survival mechanism,” he says. “Wheat makes the transition from a vegetative to a reproductive stage after it’s been exposed to cold temperatures. After the winter, when the vernalization requirement is met, winter wheat is ready to flower.”
Wheat responds differently to different photoperiods. Some varieties are sensitive to photoperiod while others are not.
Photoperiod insensitivity can be beneficial in breeding winter wheat varieties that are better adapted to northern contexts. In combination, vernalization and photoperiod response genes determine how quickly a particular genotype will make the transition to a reproductive state and therefore how they might adapt to a particular environment.
Navabi’s graduate student, Alex Whittal, has characterized a “very wide set of winter and spring wheat genotypes” in wheat for genes that control response to photoperiod and vernalization response genes.
“There are different genes controlling these two mechanisms,” Navabi says. “We now know exactly which alleles are present in each genotype tested, and based on which allele each genotype has, we can predict their response to vernalization if they are sensitive or insensitive to photoperiod. We also know that there is a frost tolerance gene in close association with vernalization genes.”
Currently, Navabi and Whittal are operating on an Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs-University of Guelph partnership project in collaboration with AAFC’s winter wheat breeder in Ottawa, Gavin Humphries.
“The work we are doing now is just a start, but we are building on other people’s experience,” Navabi says.
“Producers have played an important role in funding barley variety development,” says Dave Sefton, WGRF chair. “Since 1995 producers have invested almost $15 million into barley variety development through the Western Grains Research Foundation. Renewing our agreement with the CDC and having all of the prairie barley commissions and associations investing together is an important step to ensuring producers continue to get good value for their check-offs.”
CDC has released more than 70 malt, feed and food barley varieties since 1971, including Harrington, CDC Copeland and CDC Austenson. In the past five years alone, the program has released new malting varieties, including CDC Clear (2011), CDC Bow (2014), CDC Platinum Star (2014) and TR12135 (to be named CDC Fraser), in 2015.
“We are extremely pleased to have the three provincial commissions joining WGRF in supporting barley breeding at the CDC, demonstrating continued producer support for research targeting improved yield, disease resistance, and malt quality,” adds Kofi Agblor, managing director of the CDC. “This funding provides stability to the program for maintaining long-term, highly qualified technical staff, as well as resources for marker development and use in the breeding program.”
Know your optimum planting date and seeding rate
As we saw with the early planted crop last fall, wheat is very responsive to planting date. This was evident in 2006 when there were record yields due to early planting the previous fall. There was also a significant response to planting date in 1993, when a late planted winter wheat crop resulted in low yields. Given that planting date has a significant impact on yield, make sure you plan ahead and ensure you are targeting the optimum planting date for your area as outlined in chapter four of Publication 811: Agronomy Guide for Field Crops, Optimum Date to Seed Winter Wheat Across Ontario. See Figure 1 here.
Given that the weather does not always cooperate, it is important to be aware of the implications of variation in planting date and how to adapt accordingly. Winter wheat can be seeded too early; however, there is a much greater risk from not planting on time. At the optimum timing, winter wheat should be seeded at 1.5 million seeds/acre. This can very slightly depending on the variety so check the label for the particular variety you want to grow.
When seeding winter wheat too early there is an increased risk of lodging and snow mould. To reduce these risks decrease the seeding rate by 25 per cent if seeding more than 10 days before the optimum planting date for your area. When planting winter wheat later than the optimum timing there is reduced fall tillering. To compensate for this, increase the seeding rate by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre.
Plant at the right seeding depth
Similar to planting date, winter wheat is also very responsive to seeding depth so the more accurate the seeding depth the better chance for winter survival and higher yields. Having the proper seeding depth results in the development of a secondary root system well before winter begins and encourages quick emergence. If winter wheat is planted too deep emergence is delayed resulting in a yield reduction; however, there is often a greater yield reduction due to planting wheat too shallow.
Ensure you are planting at a depth of 2.5 cm (1 in.). Moisture availability is a very important factor so although 1 in. is an ideal depth, ensure you adjust your depth accordingly so that you are placing the seed into moisture. You can also reduce seeding depth variation by using seed firmers and reducing your planting speed.
Choose the right variety and use quality seed
Select a variety that is suited to your growing area. A number of factors should be considered when choosing a variety, these include: the farm location, winter survival, insect and disease resistance, lodging potential and yield. Utilize the Ontario cereals performance trial data on the www.GoCereals.ca website. When looking at the data, select varieties that perform well in your area across a number of sites and years. Use high quality seed with excellent germination as well as a seed treatment to help protect against seedling diseases.
The claim doesn’t come out of nowhere: together with Shane McClure, a research lead for the Middlesex Soil and Crop Improvement Association, Johnson has wrapped up two years of an oat nitrogen response study in Ontario.
The study, which ran out of funding for its third year but will continue at several sites, aims to validate or update the provincial nitrogen (N) response recommendations for oats, with and without fungicide applications (except in southwestern Ontario, where fungicides were used for all aspects of the study due to the “unbelievably devastating” risk of crown rust in the region).
Field trials were set up across southern Ontario at two sites in 2014 and five sites in 2015.
The study’s results surprised the researchers. They saw a significant response to oat N in some locations that far surpassed the provincial recommendations, sometimes by a factor of 50 per cent.
“In southwestern Ontario, the N recommendation is actually quite low, and we found response to higher rates of nitrogen. Essentially we’d suggest that we’d need to increase those rates,” Johnson says.
At their site in Winchester, the researchers observed a significant response to fungicide and a very low response to N, but at their site in New Liskeard they observed a shift in nitrogen response curves both with and without fungicides.
They concluded that 60 pounds of nitrogen (lb N) is the most economical N rate in southern Ontario and at Winchester; in New Liskeard, they recommend 80 lb N with fungicide and 65 lb N without fungicide. In all regions the researchers’ results indicated greater response than the official recommendations.
Managing lodging risk
Farmers are generally slow to push oats due to the risk of disease and lodging, says John Kobler, an agronomy technician with the University of Guelph who headed up the New Liskeard trials. But the use of a combination of fungicide and growth regulator “pays for itself, and can guarantee the crop.”
In New Liskeard, growers have not yet lost resistance to crown rust, so the researchers were able to perform the study with and without fungicide (Twinline) applications.
Part of the study’s intention in that region was to push yields of three oat varieties (Dieter, Morrison and Camden) using different N rates, and to simulate a “huge” lodging problem, Kobler says. “Normally oats would be 55 lb N, but we’ve pushed it to the point where we’re going to almost surely have lodging,” he says.
“We saw a clear response from including fungicide, showing us more yield for the higher N rates. When we push a crop really hard the canopy gets to be really thick and the possibility for disease becomes more prevalent, and then you need the fungicide.”
Higher N rates
Further south, Craig Martin, an owner of Wintermar Grains and Cribit Seeds in West Montrose, says his company has historically recommended a higher N rate than was typically recommended by the provincial guidelines.
The company contributed data to the oat nitrogen response trial as a farmer co-operator, implementing Johnson and McClure’s protocol for N and fungicide applications on 16 plots. They’ll continue with the same protocol in 2016.
The effort of participating in the trial is worth it, Martin says, because the company relies on maintaining an up-to-date “database” of information to keep its customers competitive. “The end response curve hasn’t been updated for a long time, and being in the cereal seed business and needing to know what recommendations to make to growers, we felt it would be worthwhile to know about the interactions between nitrogen and fungicides,” he says.
Johnson says the team’s research clearly indicates there is potential to increase oat yields with added N, though he cautions that conditions vary by region, and growers should make decisions based on local assessments.
But he adds that the value oats can offer to the rotation is incalculable. “The research data is pretty clear that having a cereal crop in the rotation results in much higher corn and soybean yields. The value of diversity in your crop rotation is really, really significant. It’s the impact on soil quality, higher organic matter, soil stability and soil structure,” he says.
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